Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service

Canberra, Australia

Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service

Canberra, Australia
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Maclachlan D.J.,Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service | Hamilton D.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

Residue trial data reported by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) have been reviewed to establish whether or not the resulting residues in harvested commodities are proportional to the pesticide application rate used on the crop. Numerous sets of trials were identified where the only parameter varied was application rate or spray concentration. Analysis of this database in terms of application rate, spray concentration, formulation type, preharvest interval, crop, pesticide, residue level and application type confirms that residues scale with application rate (proportionality principle). It is anticipated that use of the proportionality principle by regulators and those interested in evaluating pesticide residue data will improve pesticide risk assessment. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Scheffrahn R.H.,University of Florida | Crowe W.,Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2011

Alate termite flights from mature colonies infesting marine vessels is a primary mechanism for anthropogenic transoceanic establishment of invasive termite species. A taxonomic review is given of 133 recorded termite infestations onboard vessels in Australia and Florida between 1986 and 2009. The differing governmental approaches to regulating entry by foreign boats appears to reflect the relative frequency of exotic termite establishments in Australia and Florida.

Ray J.D.,Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service | Burgess T.,Murdoch University | Lanoiselet V.M.,Baron Hay Court
Australasian Plant Disease Notes | Year: 2010

Neoscytalidium dimidiatum is reported for the first time in Australia associated with dieback of mango and common fig. Neoscytalidium novaehollandiae is reported for the first time associated with dieback of mango. © Australasian Plant Pathology ociety 2010.

Sakalidis M.L.,Murdoch University | Ray J.D.,Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service | Lanoiselet V.,Baron Hay Crt | Hardy G.E.S.,Murdoch University | Burgess T.I.,Murdoch University
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Members of the Botryosphaeriaceae, in particular Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Neofusicoccum parvum, N. mangiferum and Botryosphaeria dothidea, commonly cause stem cankers, dieback and stem end rot of mangoes worldwide. In the current study, eight taxa of Botryosphaeriaceae were identified as canker-associated fungi, pathogens, potential pathogens or endophytes of mangoes in the Kimberley, Australia. These include Neoscytalidium novaehollandiae, Ne. dimidiatum, Pseudofusicoccum adansoniae, P. ardesiacum, P. kimberleyense, Lasiodiplodia sp. 1, L. iraniensis and L. pseudotheobromae. The pathogenicity of a selection of these species toward fruit and branches was tested. All were pathogenic to mango in comparison to the control, with Lasiodiplodia spp. being the most pathogenic. It appears that either geographic isolation or the unique growing conditions in the Kimberley may have provided an effective barrier to the acquisition or establishment of known botryosphaeriaceous pathogens. Wounds caused by mechanical pruning may provide an entry point for infection, whilst severe pruning may increase plant stress. © 2011 KNPV.

MacLachlan D.J.,Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service | Hamilton D.,326 Stanley Terrace
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) are standards that represent the maximum residue concentration expected to be found if a pesticide is applied according to good agricultural practice (GAP). MRLs are established only where the residues in food resulting from particular use patterns of the pesticide pass the public health risk assessment. Foodstuffs are monitored for MRL compliance and MRL exceedance can have economic and trade consequences. There is a trade-off when deciding on values for MRLs. The aim is to establish MRLs at levels that are high enough to prevent chance exceedance but not so high that misuse will not be detected. Small data sets typically available for estimating MRLs present problems for establishing consistent values. A review of MRL estimation methods is presented together with an assessment of the various methods. © 2010.

MacLachlan D.J.,Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service
Animal Production Science | Year: 2011

Literature studies on the transfer from livestock feed of residues of organic contaminants, metals and mycotoxins to edible livestock commodities have been reviewed. This review focuses on contaminants relevant to risks assessment of livestock feeds, especially those contaminants for which regulatory standards have been established. Those involved in the supply of livestock feed need to be aware of maximum levels for various contaminants in food and develop strategies to ensure food derived from livestock complies. An impediment to profiling feed ingredients has been the lack of accessible information on the transfer of residues from feed to tissues, milk and eggs derived from exposed livestock. Transfer factors are summarised for 72 contaminants for cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and can be used in the first tiers of risk assessment to identify contaminant and feed ingredient combinations that require management. © 2011 CSIRO.

Marksomyia is proposed as a new subgenus of the genus Culicoides Latreille to embrace six species from Australia and New Guinea. Comparative descriptions of males and females of C. zentae sp. nov. and C. kayi sp. nov., pupae of C. zentae and redescriptions of C. marksi Lee & Reye, C. dycei Lee & Reye, C. parvimaculatus Lee & Reye and C. pseudostigmaticus Tokunaga are presented together with distributional data and keys for their specific determination. The designated type species of the subgenus is C. marksi. Marksomyia is further subdivided into three species complexes based on the shape and sclerotisation of the spermathecae. Copyright © 2011, Magnolia Press.

Maclachlan D.J.,Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service | Hamilton D.,Biosecurity Queensland
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

An approach is presented for the prediction of pesticide residue concentrations in food and feed commodities produced from foliar-treated crops. It uses limited residue trial data and relies on information on spray retention and decline rates of residues following application. The use of the simple approach is demonstrated for residues of a variety of pesticides and the results compared with data sets evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) using expert judgement and also with estimates of high residues obtained using statistical methods. It is proposed that the approach should constitute an additional tool for the risk assessment of pesticide residues; it contributes to the estimation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) and high and median residues, which are needed for risk assessment. The approach should be particularly useful in situations where only a few residue trials are available such as often occurs for minor crops. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

MacLachlan D.J.,Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling has been used to examine the relative importance of physiological differences between laying hens and broiler chickens as well as between broiler chickens and ducks, geese, and turkeys in determining tissue residues. Following exposure in feed, there may be significant differences in tissue residues between laying hens and broiler chickens. The blood lipid content of laying versus broilers, the duration of exposure, and the fraction of the dose absorbed into the systemic circulation were important parameters together with tissue-to-blood partition coefficients. The potential for modelling to improve the extrapolation of residue transfer studies carried out using laying hens to broiler chickens and other poultry is demonstrated. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Bochkov A.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Otto J.C.,Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

Five new species and 1 new genus of predaceous cheyletid mites (Acari: Cheyletidae) are described. Oconnoricheylus gen. nov. (type species O. speciosus sp. nov.) differs from Alliea in both sexes by the presence of 4 setae on tibia II and in males by the palpal claws possessing elongated projections, an apically slightly serrate eupathidium ul' and comb-like eupathidia acm and sul. Oconnoricheylus speciosus sp. nov. (from oranges, USA) differs from O. chimaera (Bochkov & Ochoa) comb. nov. (transferred from Alliea) by the presence of 2 filiform setae on tibia II, the distinct ornamentation of the dorsal shields, and by the absence of angles on the leg tarsal claws. Cheletomimus crowei sp. nov. (from avocado, New Zealand) differs from C. filipina Corpuz-Raros and C. notelaeae Gerson by smooth filiform setae dF of the palpal femur, smooth idiosomal setae c2, the presence of setae ps3, setae se located off the propodonotal plate, bases of setae e1 located almost at the same level with bases of e2, and by the propodonotal shield in the shape of an inverted trapezium. Chelacheles thomasi sp. nov. (from oranges, Australia) differs from C. stigmaeoides Barilo by the absence of setae c4, short and serrate rod-like setae c2 (about 40 long), and by the presence of 2 setae on femur III. Chelacheles indra sp. nov. (from beetles Sinoxylon crassum, India) differs from C. baiwanganae Corpuz-Raros by the absence of setae f1, by setae h1 being slightly shorter than other hysteronotal setae. Bak indonesiensis sp. nov. (from undetermined beetle, Indonesia) differs from B. elongatus Patxot & Goff and B. faini Corpuz-Raros by the presence of 1 seta (l') on genu III, the slightly clavate dorsal setae of the idiosoma, setae e1 being subequal in shape and sizes to their anterior hysteronotal setae, and by the presence of a pair of distinct lateral teeth on the rostral shield. Copyright © 2010 · Magnolia Press.

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