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D'Souza D.N.,Australian Pork Ltd | Blake B.L.,Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food | Williams I.H.,University of Western Australia | Mullan B.P.,Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food | And 2 more authors.
Animals | Year: 2015

Forty crossbred (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) female pigs (16.4 kg ± 0.94 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin supplementation on growth performance and pork quality. Pigs were randomly allocated to a commercial diet containing either 0, 3, 15 or 75 g lecithin/kg of feed during the grower and finisher growth phase. Pork from pigs consuming the diets containing 15 g and 75 g lecithin/kg had lower hardness (P < 0.001) and chewiness (P < 0.01) values compared to the controls. Dietary lecithin supplementation at 75 g/kg significantly increased (P < 0.05) the linoleic acid and reduced (P < 0.05) the myristic acid levels of pork compared to the control and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. Pigs fed the 75 g/kg lecithin supplemented diet had lower plasma cholesterol (P < 0.05) at slaughter compared to pigs fed the control diet and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. These data indicate that dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork from female pigs. © 2015 by the authors. Source


Trezona M.,Baron Hay Court | Trezona M.,Murdoch University | Mullan B.P.,Baron Hay Court | D'Souza D.N.,Australian Pork Ltd | And 6 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2011

One hundred and sixty female Large White × Landrace pigs were obtained at 3 weeks of age, average liveweight (LW) 5.5 ± 0.08 kg, stratified on LW and allocated to four treatments in a factorial design that consisted of two housing treatments, conventional (C) or deep-litter (D), across two growth periods: early (3-13 weeks of age) and late (13-24 weeks of age). At 13 weeks of age eight pigs per treatment (n = 32) were slaughtered, and the remaining pigs (n = 128) moved to new pens where they remained until slaughter at 24 weeks of age. Moving pigs into a new housing system caused a growth reduction, as indicated by significantly lower LW (P = 0.003), compared with pigs that remained within the same housing system, regardless of whether the new system was C or D. Carcass composition results indicated that pigs finished in the D system (24 weeks of age) were not fatter than pigs raised in C housing, with pigs raised entirely in C housing tending to be the fattest (P = 0.090). There was an effect of housing on fat distribution within the carcass where pigs finished in D housing had significantly less fat in the belly primal compared with pigs finished in the C facilities (35.3 versus 31.2%, P = 0.030). These findings suggest that the strategy of moving pigs from D housing to C housing for finishing, to reduce carcass fatness and improve pig growth performance, was not successful as pigs were fatter, lighter and less efficient than pigs of the same age housed in D from wean to finish. © CSIRO 2011. Source


Trezona M.,Baron Hay Court | Trezona M.,Murdoch University | Mullan B.P.,Baron Hay Court | D'Souza D.N.,Australian Pork Ltd | And 6 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2011

Weaning pigs into deep-litter (D) housing systems and then moving them into conventional (C) housing facilities affects the growth paths of the pigs and can result in differences in carcass composition which may be explained by altered fat metabolism. To examine this proposition experimentally, 160 female Large White × Landrace pigs were obtained at 3 weeks of age, average liveweight 5.5 ± 0.08 kg and were stratified by weight to four treatments. The treatments consisted of two housing treatments, C or D, across two growth periods: (i) early (3-13 weeks of age); and (ii) late (13-24 weeks of age). At ∼13 weeks of age eight pigs per experimental treatment (n = 32) were slaughtered and the remaining pigs (n = 128) moved to new pens where they were housed until slaughter at ∼24 weeks of age. To 13 weeks of age, the effect of housing type on lipogenesis did not reach significance (P > 0.05). At 24 weeks of age there were some treatment differences in fatty acid profile (P ≤ 0.05) and the concentration of plasma glycerol (P = 0.002) and non-esterified fatty acids (P = 0.019). There were trends for lipogenic enzyme activity to differ between treatments also (P < 0.100). Results suggested fat deposition was lower in D-finished pigs compared with C-finished pigs, rejecting the hypothesis that D-finished pigs would be fatter. However, most of the differences in the biochemical measurements were explained by the significant reduction in growth that occurred when pigs changed housing environments, rather than as an effect of the housing environment itself. Indicators of lipogenesis suggested that lipogenic rate was lowest in pigs moved from C to D housing compared with other treatment groups that had remained within the same housing, C or D, throughout the experiment or had moved from D housing to C housing at 13 weeks of age. © CSIRO 2011. Source


D'Souza D.N.,Pork Research and Development Division | D'Souza D.N.,Australian Pork Ltd | Mullan B.P.,Pork Research and Development Division | Pethick D.W.,Murdoch University | And 2 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2012

Fifty crossbred (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) female finisher pigs were used to determine the effect of nutritional strategies on intramuscular fat content. The dietary treatments were (A) Control: commercial grower and finisher diet, (Day 68-166), (B) 15% P:E and vitamin A: a 15% reduced protein:energy grower diet with no supplemental vitamin A (Day 68110), followed by a commercial finisher diet (Day 111-166), (C) sugar: a grower diet supplemented with 10% sugar (Day 68-110), followed by a commercial finisher diet (Day 111-166), (D) zinc: a grower diet supplemented with 250 ppm zinc (Day 68-110), followed by a commercial finisher diet (Day 111-166), and (E) lecithin: a diet supplemented with 3 g/kg lecithin in the grower and finisher diet (Day 68-166). The effects of lecithin supplementation on compression characteristics of the M. semitendinosus were also studied. These data indicate that there were no significant effects of dietary manipulations on intramuscular fat content. During the grower phase (Day 68-110) pigs offered the low protein:energy and vitamin A-deficient diet had a poorer feed:gain compared with those offered diet containing supplemental sugar. Dietary lecithin supplementation decreased (P<0.05) hardness and chewiness values for the M. semitendinosus compared with pigs offered the Control diet. Pigs offered the lecithin-supplemented diet also tended (P = 0.090) to have lower cook loss compared with pigs offered the Control diet. Dietary zinc supplementation during the grower phase improved (P<0.05) the carcass dressing % compared with pigs offered the other diets. Dietary sugar or zinc increased (P<0.05) the amount of lean in the belly and may be a means to control the rapid rise in the ratio of fat to lean in the belly during the finisher phase. These data indicate that dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the tenderness of pork but that intramuscular fat is difficult to manipulate nutritionally from an already moderate amount. © 2012 CSIRO. Source


Moore K.L.,Bentley Delivery Center | Mullan B.P.,Bentley Delivery Center | Pluske J.R.,Murdoch University | Kim J.C.,Bentley Delivery Center | D'Souza D.N.,Australian Pork Ltd
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Ninety individually-housed castrated pigs (Large White × Landrace × Duroc mixed crossbred, n= 18) were used in a randomized block experiment to determine the effect of yeast protein concentrate (YPC) or its major active components, nucleotides (NCL), inositol (INS), and glutamate (GLU), on pig performance, indices of gut structure and circulating measures of immune function. Daily gain and feed intake were not affected by diet, however pigs fed the YPC diet had a lower feed conversion ratio compared to those fed the control (CON), INS and NCL diets (P=0.028) in the feeding period. Villous height in the duodenum was increased in pigs that received the YPC diet compared to the CON and INS diets (P=0.029). In addition, immunoglobulin G levels were increased in pigs that received the INS and GLU diets compared to the CON and NCL diet on day 21 (P=0.034). These data suggest that although the effect was limited on the duodenal villous structure, pigs fed the YPC diet showed an improved duodenal villous height and the positive effect of YPC is most likely attributable to glutamate and nucleotides in the YPC. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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