Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group

Melbourne, Australia

Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group

Melbourne, Australia
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Faber M.T.,Danish Cancer Society | Kjaer S.K.,Danish Cancer Society | Kjaer S.K.,Copenhagen University | Dehlendorff C.,Danish Cancer Society | And 60 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2013

Purpose The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology. Methods We used data from 21 case-control studies of ovarian cancer (19,066 controls, 11,972 invasive and 2,752 borderline cases). Study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models and combined into a pooled odds ratio using a random effects model. Results Current cigarette smoking increased the risk of invasive mucinous (OR = 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.03-1.65) and borderline mucinous ovarian tumors (OR = 1.83; 95 % CI: 1.39-2.41), while former smoking increased the risk of borderline serous ovarian tumors (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI: 1.12-1.50). For these histological types, consistent dose- response associations were observed. No convincing associations between smoking and risk of invasive serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer were observed, while our results provided some evidence of a decreased risk of invasive clear cell ovarian cancer. Conclusions Our results revealed marked differences in the risk profiles of histological types of ovarian cancer with regard to cigarette smoking, although the magnitude of the observed associations was modest. Our findings, which may reflect different etiologies of the histological types, add to the fact that ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.

Anglesio M.S.,University of British Columbia | Kommoss S.,University of British Columbia | Clarke B.,University of Toronto | Galletta L.,Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2013

Mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MCs) typically do not respond to current conventional therapy. We have previously demonstrated amplification of HER2 in 6 of 33 (18.2%) mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MCs) and presented anecdotal evidence of response with HER2-targeted treatment in a small series of women with recurrent HER2-amplified (HER2+) MC. Here, we explore HER2 amplification and KRAS mutation status in an independent cohort of 189 MCs and 199 mucinous borderline ovarian tumours (MBOTs) and their association to clinicopathological features. HER2 status was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), FISH, and CISH, and interpreted per ASCO/CAP guidelines, with intratumoural heterogeneity assessment on full sections, where available. KRAS mutation testing was performed with Sanger sequencing. Stage and grade were associated with recurrence on both univariate and multivariate analysis (p < 0.001). Assessment of HER2 status revealed overexpression/amplification of HER2 in 29/154 (18.8%) MCs and 11/176 (6.2%) MBOTs. There was excellent agreement between IHC, FISH, and CISH assessment of HER2 status (perfect concordance of HER2 0 or 1+ IHC with non-amplified status, and 3+ IHC with amplified status). KRAS mutations were seen in 31/71 (43.6%) MCs and 26/33 (78.8%) MBOTs, and were near mutually exclusive of HER2 amplification. In the 189 MC cases, a total of 54 recurrences and 59 deaths (53 of progressive disease) were observed. Within MCs, either HER2 amplification/overexpression or KRAS mutation was associated with decreased likelihood of disease recurrence (p = 0.019) or death (p = 0.0041) when compared to cases with neither feature. Intratumoural heterogeneity was noted in 26% of HER2-overexpressing cases. These data support the stratification of MCs for the testing of new treatments, with HER2-targeted therapy as a viable option for HER2+ advanced or recurrent disease. Further research is required to delineate the molecular and clinical features of the ∼34% of MC cases with neither HER2 amplification nor KRAS mutations. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Beesley J.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Johnatty S.E.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Chen X.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Spurdle A.B.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

ABCC11 is an ATP-binding cassette transporter responsible for the transport of a diverse range of lipophilic compounds. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) encoding an amino acid change has recently been shown to determine whether cerumen (earwax) is wet or dry. We hypothesised that this ABCC11 SNP may be associated with breast cancer risk because an association has been reported between wet earwax and increased risk of breast cancer. We therefore analysed the frequency of the functional SNP in 1342 cases and 2256 controls from two breast cancer studies of Caucasian women but found no evidence for an association with breast cancer risk. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Kirchhoff T.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Kirchhoff T.,New York University | Offit K.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Gaudet M.M.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 190 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Recently, a locus on chromosome 6q22.33 (rs2180341) was reported to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, and this association was also observed in populations of non-AJ European ancestry. In the present study, we performed a large replication analysis of rs2180341 using data from 31,428 invasive breast cancer cases and 34,700 controls collected from 25 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). In addition, we evaluated whether rs2180341 modifies breast cancer risk in 3,361 BRCA1 and 2,020 BRCA2 carriers from 11 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Based on the BCAC data from women of European ancestry, we found evidence for a weak association with breast cancer risk for rs2180341 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, p = 0.023). There was evidence for heterogeneity in the ORs among studies (I2 = 49.3%; p = <0.004). In CIMBA, we observed an inverse association with the minor allele of rs2180341 and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele OR = 0.89, 95%CI 0.80-1.00, p = 0.048), indicating a potential protective effect of this allele. These data suggest that that 6q22.33 confers a weak effect on breast cancer risk. © 2012 Kirchhoff et al.

Milne R.L.,Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group | Gaudet M.M.,Yeshiva University | Spurdle A.B.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Fasching P.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 95 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Introduction: Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.Methods: We evaluated two-way interactions between each of age at menarche, ever having had a live birth, number of live births, age at first birth and body mass index (BMI) and each of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (10q26-rs2981582 (FGFR2), 8q24-rs13281615, 11p15-rs3817198 (LSP1), 5q11-rs889312 (MAP3K1), 16q12-rs3803662 (TOX3), 2q35-rs13387042, 5p12-rs10941679 (MRPS30), 17q23-rs6504950 (COX11), 3p24-rs4973768 (SLC4A7), CASP8-rs17468277, TGFB1-rs1982073 and ESR1-rs3020314). Interactions were tested for by fitting logistic regression models including per-allele and linear trend main effects for SNPs and risk factors, respectively, and single-parameter interaction terms for linear departure from independent multiplicative effects.Results: These analyses were applied to data for up to 26,349 invasive breast cancer cases and up to 32,208 controls from 21 case-control studies. No statistical evidence of interaction was observed beyond that expected by chance. Analyses were repeated using data from 11 population-based studies, and results were very similar.Conclusions: The relative risks for breast cancer associated with the common susceptibility variants identified to date do not appear to vary across women with different reproductive histories or body mass index (BMI). The assumption of multiplicative combined effects for these established genetic and other risk factors in risk prediction models appears justified. © 2010 Milne et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ryland G.L.,Victorian Breast Cancer Research Consortium | Ryland G.L.,Monash Institute of Medical Research | Hunter S.M.,Victorian Breast Cancer Research Consortium | Doyle M.A.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2013

Mucinous carcinomas represent a distinct morphological subtype which can arise from several organ sites, including the ovary, and their genetic characteristics are largely under-described. Exome sequencing of 12 primary mucinous ovarian tumours identified RNF43 as the most frequently somatically mutated novel gene, secondary to KRAS and mutated at a frequency equal to that of TP53 and BRAF. Further screening of RNF43 in a larger cohort of ovarian tumours identified additional mutations, with a total frequency of 2/22 (9%) in mucinous ovarian borderline tumours and 6/29 (21%) in mucinous ovarian carcinomas. Seven mutations were predicted to truncate the protein and one missense mutation was predicted to be deleterious by in silico analysis. Six tumours had allelic imbalance at the RNF43 locus, with loss of the wild-type allele. The mutation spectrum strongly suggests that RNF43 is an important tumour suppressor gene in mucinous ovarian tumours, similar to its reported role in mucinous pancreatic precancerous cysts. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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