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Menai, Australia

The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation is a statutory body of the Australian government, formed in 1987 to replace the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. Its head office and main facilities are in southern outskirts of Sydney at Lucas Heights, in the Sutherland Shire. It also operated the now closed National Medical Cyclotron at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. Wikipedia.

Minakshi M.,Murdoch University | Ionescu M.,Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

The commercial, alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn-MnO2) primary battery has been transformed into a secondary battery using lithium hydroxide electrolyte. Galvanostatic discharge-charge experiments showed that the capacity decline of the Zn-MnO2 battery is not caused by the MnO2 cathode, but by the zinc anode. The electrochemical data indicated that a rechargeable battery made of porous zinc anode can have a larger discharge capacity of 220 mAh/g than a planar zinc anode of 130 mAh/g. The cycling performance of these two anodes is demonstrated. Structural and depth profile analyses of the discharged anodes are examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) techniques. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Source

Randau C.,Institute For Werkstoffkunde Und Werkstofftechnik | Garbe U.,Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization | Brokmeier H.-G.,Institute For Werkstoffkunde Und Werkstofftechnik
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2011

Modern materials science diffractometers are generally equipped with area detectors that allow a high time efficiency to be achieved by simultaneously collecting the scattering pattern over large angular regions. These area-detector-based instruments, however, produce a huge amount of data, especially if they are located at large-scale neutron or synchrotron sources. The software StressTextureCalculator (STeCa) was designed to facilitate fast, easy and automated access to such area-detector data. Its outstanding features are direct calculation of diffraction patterns from different types of area-detector measurements, automatic data treatment and peak fitting using several implemented fit options. The resulting information on intensity, peak shift and broadening can then be exported into several data formats. These in turn can be used as input for a wide range of texture, stress and microstructure analysis software packages without additional prior treatment. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved. Source

Howarth J.D.,University of Otago | Fitzsimons S.J.,University of Otago | Norris R.J.,University of Otago | Jacobsen G.E.,Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization
Geology | Year: 2012

Large earthquakes in mountain regions commonly trigger extensive landsliding and are important drivers of erosion, but the contribution of this landsliding to long-term erosion rates and seismic hazard remains poorly understood. Here we show that lake sediments record postseismic landscape response as a sequence of turbidites that can be used to quantify erosion related to large (moment magnitude, Mw > 7.6) earthquakes on the Alpine fault, New Zealand. Alpine fault earthquakes caused a threefold increase in sediment flux over the ~50 yr duration of each postseismic landscape response; this represents considerable delayed hazard following earthquake-induced strong ground motion. Earthquakes were responsible for 27% of the sediment flux from the lake catchment over the past 1100 yr, leading us to conclude that Alpine fault earthquakes are one of the most important drivers of erosion in the range front of the Southern Alps. © 2012 Geological Society of America. Source

Carilli J.,Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization | Donner S.D.,University of British Columbia | Hartmann A.C.,University of California at San Diego
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Coral bleaching is the breakdown of symbiosis between coral animal hosts and their dinoflagellate algae symbionts in response to environmental stress. On large spatial scales, heat stress is the most common factor causing bleaching, which is predicted to increase in frequency and severity as the climate warms. There is evidence that the temperature threshold at which bleaching occurs varies with local environmental conditions and background climate conditions. We investigated the influence of past temperature variability on coral susceptibility to bleaching, using the natural gradient in peak temperature variability in the Gilbert Islands, Republic of Kiribati. The spatial pattern in skeletal growth rates and partial mortality scars found in massive Porites sp. across the central and northern islands suggests that corals subject to larger year-to-year fluctuations in maximum ocean temperature were more resistant to a 2004 warm-water event. In addition, a subsequent 2009 warm event had a disproportionately larger impact on those corals from the island with lower historical heat stress, as indicated by lower concentrations of triacylglycerol, a lipid utilized for energy, as well as thinner tissue in those corals. This study indicates that coral reefs in locations with more frequent warm events may be more resilient to future warming, and protection measures may be more effective in these regions. © 2012 Carilli et al. Source

The conventional reaction yield evaluation for radioisotope production is not sufficient to set up the optimal conditions for producing radionuclide products of the desired radiochemical quality. Alternatively, the specific radioactivity (SA) assessment, dealing with the relationship between the affecting factors and the inherent properties of the target and impurities, offers a way to optimally perform the irradiation for production of the best quality radioisotopes for various applications, especially for targeting radiopharmaceutical preparation. Neutron-capture characteristics, target impurity, side nuclear reactions, target burn-up and post-irradiation processing/cooling time are the main parameters affecting the SA of the radioisotope product. These parameters have been incorporated into the format of mathematical equations for the reaction yield and SA assessment. As a method demonstration, the SA assessment of 177Lu produced based on two different reactions, 176Lu (n,γ)177Lu and 176Yb (n,γ) 177Yb (β- decay) 177Lu, were performed. The irradiation time required for achieving a maximum yield and maximum SA value was evaluated for production based on the 176Lu (n,γ)177Lu reaction. The effect of several factors (such as elemental Lu and isotopic impurities) on the 177Lu SA degradation was evaluated for production based on the 176Yb (n,γ) 177Yb (β- decay) 177Lu reaction. The method of SA assessment of a mixture of several radioactive sources was developed for the radioisotope produced in a reactor from different targets. © 2011 by the authors. Source

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