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Scott D.,Australian Institute of Family Studies | Siskind V.,Center for Accident Research and Road Safety
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

The second year of life is a time of rapid developmental changes. This paper aims to describe the pattern of unintentional injuries to one-year old children in three-month age bands to better understand the risks associated with developmental stages and, therefore, identify opportunities for proactive prevention. Injury surveillance data were used to identify children admitted to hospital in Queensland, Australia for an unintentional injury from 2002–2012. Falls were the most common injury, followed by burns and scalds, contact injuries and poisonings. Falls and contact injuries remained roughly constant by age, burns and scalds decreased and poisonings (by medications) increased. Animal-and transport-related injuries also became more common, immersions and other threats to breathing less common. Within the falls and contact categories falls from play equipment and injuries due to contact with persons increased, while falls down stairs and catching fingers in doors decreased. The pattern of injuries varies over the second year of life and is clearly linked to the child’s increasing mobility and boldness. Preventive measures for young children need to be designed—and evaluated—with their developmental stage in mind, using a variety of strategies, including opportunistic, developmentally specific education of parents; and practitioners should also consider potential for lapses in supervision and possible intentional injury in all injury assessments. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

McKenzie K.,Queensland University of Technology | Scott D.A.,Australian Institute of Family Studies
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: While child maltreatment is recognised as a global problem, solid epidemiological data on the prevalence of child maltreatment and risk factors associated with child maltreatment is lacking in Australia and internationally. There have been recent calls for action to improve the evidence-base capturing and describing child abuse, particularly those data captured within the health sector. This paper describes the quantity of documentation of maltreatment risk factors in injury-related paediatric hospitalisations in Queensland, Australia. Methods: This study involved a retrospective medical record review, text extraction and coding methodology to assess the quantity of documentation of risk factors and the subsequent utility of data in hospital records for describing child maltreatment and data linkage to Child Protection Service (CPS). Results: There were 433 children in the maltreatment group and 462 in the unintentional injury group for whom medical records could be reviewed. Almost 93% of the maltreatment code sample, but only 11% of the unintentional injury sample had documentation identified indicating the presence of any of 20 risk factors. In the maltreatment group the most commonly documented risk factor was history of abuse (41%). In those with an unintentional injury, the most commonly documented risk factor was alcohol abuse of the child or family (3%). More than 93% of the maltreatment sample also linked to a child protection record. Of concern are the 16% of those children who linked to child protection who did not have documented risk factors in the medical record. Conclusion: Given the importance of the medical record as a source of information about children presenting to hospital for treatment and as a potential source of evidence for legal action the lack of documentation is of concern. The details surrounding the injury admission and consideration of any maltreatment related risk factors, both identifying their presence and ruling them out are required for each and every case. This highlights the need for additional training for clinicians to understand the importance of their documentation in child injury cases. © 2012 McKenzie and Scott; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Priest N.,University of Melbourne | Baxter J.,Australian Institute of Family Studies | Hayes L.,VIC
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives: 1) profile the living environments and 2) examine the social and emotional outcomes of Australian children from Indigenous and cultural and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds at school entry. Method: Secondary analysis of crosssectional data collected in Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n=4,735). Child mental-health outcomes were measured using parent report of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: Significant differences in family and neighbourhood characteristics, including parental income, maternal education, maternal parenting quality and neighbourhood safety, were found in children of Indigenous and CALD backgrounds compared to the reference group of Australian-born, English-speaking children. After controlling for family and neighbourhood characteristics, significant differences in parent-reported SDQ total difficulties were found for Indigenous children. Significant differences in emotional difficulties and peer problems subscales were found for children with overseas-born mothers regardless of English proficiency. Conclusions: Children from Indigenous and CALD backgrounds experience poorer mental health outcomes at school entry than their Australian-born Englishspeaking peers. They are also more likely to be exposed to risk factors for poor child mental-health outcomes within their family and neighbourhood environments. © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

Higgins D.,Australian Institute of Family Studies
Sexual and Relationship Therapy | Year: 2010

The link between living with a disability and an individual's risk of being disadvantaged or discriminated against is clear. However, the focus is often on issues of equity and access to employment and services and the physical health needs of individuals. When focusing broadly on rights, the gender and sexuality of people living with a disability can easily be rendered invisible, or subjugated to other seemingly "higher order" issues. Broader issues of the sexual health, sexual identity and sexual expression of people with a disability needs to also be brought into focus. Drawing on research from Australia and internationally, this paper provides a brief overview of the experience of sexual assault and sexual victimisation, homophobia and gender-based discrimination for people with a disability. Recognising and balancing these complex and sometimes apparently competing self-identities and needs is complex, yet is integral from a human rights perspective. © 2010 Crown Copyright.

Horwood L.J.,University of Otago | Fergusson D.M.,University of Otago | Coffey C.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Patton G.C.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2012

Background: This study presents an integrative data analysis of the association between frequency of cannabis use and severity of depressive symptoms using data from four Australasian cohort studies. The integrated data comprised observations on over 6900 individuals studied on up to seven occasions between adolescence and mature adulthood. Methods: Repeated measures data on frequency of cannabis use (not used/

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