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Creffield J.W.,Onwood Entomology Pty Ltd. | Creffield J.W.,CSIRO | Lenz M.,CSIRO | Scown D.K.,Australian Forest Research Company Pty Ltd. | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2013

Coptotermes Wasmann is one of the most important genera of wood-destroying insect pests, both in its native and introduced countries. Pyrethroids are among the most widely used insecticides in wood preservation around the world. Consequently, they have often been evaluated against different species of Coptotermes. However, because various test methods have been used between countries, comparing results is problematic. These field trials, using a single aboveground method of exposure, assessed a range of retentions of two pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin) in Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood against two species of Coptotermes in three countries to provide directly comparable results. Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) in Australia consumed the most nontreated wood, followed by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in China, then C formosanus in the United States, although these data were not significantly different. Both termite species demonstrated a dose-response to wood treated with the two pyrethroids; less wood was consumed as retention increased. Overall, C. acinaciformis consumed relatively little of the treated wood. In comparison, C. formosanus consumed 20-90% of the wood treated at the lowest retentions of the pyrethroids evaluated. Results indicated that C. acinaciformis was more sensitive to pyrethroid toxicity/ repellency compared with C. formosanus. Factors that may have influenced the results are discussed. However, using a single aboveground method of exposure across three countries, that suited both species of Coptotermes, made it possible to determine unambiguously the actual differences between the species in their tolerances to the two pyrethroid insecticides. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.


Carr J.M.,CSIRO | Carr J.M.,Australian Forest Research Company Pty Ltd | Duggan P.J.,CSIRO | Humphrey D.G.,CSIRO | And 4 more authors.
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

Four new tetra-n-butylammonium spiroborates derived from dimethyl, diethyl, di-iso-propyl and di-n-butyl esters of l-tartaric acid have been prepared and their potential as environmentally benign wood protectants investigated. These compounds showed good activity in a no-choice cellulose paper bioassay with Coptotermes acinaciformis termites. The hydrolytic stability of these spiroborates is not high relative to other spiroborates, yet the tetra-n-butylammonium spiroborate derived from di-iso-propyl-l-tartrate showed remarkable permanence in timber in a demanding leaching test. © 2011 CSIRO.


Carr J.M.,SIRO Materials Science and Engineering | Carr J.M.,Australian Forest Research Company Pty Ltd | Duggan P.J.,SIRO Materials Science and Engineering | Humphrey D.G.,SIRO Materials Science and Engineering | And 4 more authors.
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

The preparation of tetra-n-butylammonium spiroborates derived from the aliphatic-hydroxy acids glycolic and (S)-(+)-mandelic acid, and the spiroborate mixed anhydrides derived from the dicarboxylic acids oxalic, malonic, succinic, and phthalic acid was investigated. The target ammonium spiroborates were obtained in pure form from glycolic, (S)-(+)-mandelic, and oxalic acids and were tested for their potential as wood preservatives. The spiroborates derived from glycolic acid and (S)-(+)-mandelic acid show promise and are worthy of further investigation. Useful information about the order of stability of the spiroborate mixed anhydrides derived from the dicarboxylic acids has been obtained and a new oxalato triborate related in structure to borax has been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography. © 2011 CSIRO.

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