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Yousif A.M.,Deakin University | Yousif A.M.,Australian Export Grains Innovation Center
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods | Year: 2016

Trials were carried out to assess the effect of white sorghum (WS) and red sorghum (RS) supplementation on the physical attributes of traditional wheat flour (WF) flat bread. Flat breads were prepared with varying amounts of refined WF and (30, 40 and 50% of) commercial wholegrain WS or RS flours and measurements were taken of the physical attributes (weight, volume, colour and texture) of the resulting combinations. Addition of WS and RS flour reduced the weight of the flat bread by 7.42 and 6.72%, respectively, and volume by 21.31 and 16.60%, respectively, compared with the 100% WF flat bread. The addition of WS flour resulted in a significantly harder (0.58%) flat bread compared with the 100% WF flatbread, with 'noticeable' and 'appreciable' ΔE*ab colour differences compared with the 100% WF flat bread. Adding RS flour resulted in comparable flat bread texture, however it produced a 'discernibly' ΔE*ab darker flat bread when compared to the 100% WF flat bread. This work indicates that supplementing WS and RS flour results in lower quality physical attributes in relation to the 100% WF flat bread. © 2015 Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Evans D.E.,University of Tasmania | Redd K.,University of Tasmania | Haraysmow S.E.,Australian Export Grains Innovation Center | Elvig N.,Novozymes AS | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists | Year: 2014

Brewing high quality beer efficiently requires good quality malt for conventional malt brewing or good quality barley for barley brewing with the Ondea Pro enzyme system. The potential brewing performance of both malt and barley were compared by using two similar small-scale mashing protocols, both variations on the EBC-Congress mashing protocol, which produced wort of a similar gravity and fermentability. This was achieved by mashing 93 different malt samples with the "Final 65°C" protocol and 137 different barley samples with the barley brewing protocol. The two different mash grist sources provided an opportunity to compare and contrast these two alternative brewing systems. Overall, barley brewing with Ondea Pro produces slightly lower levels of extract, while fermentability levels were somewhat lower than malt mashed with the Final 65°C protocol but comparable with the fermentability previously observed for malt mashed with the EBC-Congress protocol. For barley brewing, high levels of fermentability, comparable with the level achieved with malt (Congress protocol), result from the selection of the appropriate quality barley for brewing. Typically, barley from malting or food grade varieties that contain the highly thermostable Sd2H β-amylase type produced the highest levels of extract and fermentability. In addition, barley brewing assessment of samples from two subsequent growing seasons produced higher extracts that were equivalent to that achieved with malt, indicating a potential seasonal impact. The worts produced by both brewing systems were of similar pH and contained similar levels of Bradford protein. The barley brewed wort did have substantially higher levels of wort lipid (measured as total fatty acids) and lower levels of FAN, although previous investigations and our results suggest that this does not adversely impact yeast fermentation performance. With respect to wort filtering and lautering efficiency, barley brewed mashes/worts were substantially superior due to reduced wort viscosity and lower β-glucan content. This was despite the higher levels of wort lipid, presumably fatty acids, observed in barley brewed wort. With both malt and barley brewing, wort lipid levels were positively correlated with wort haze but were negatively correlated with lautering and wort filtration efficiency. These observations suggest that variation in the level of lipase activity in malt could potentially impact wort filtration and lautering efficiency. Malt and barley characteristics that potentially predict extract, fermentability, FAN, wort filterability, and lautering efficiency were assessed by step-wise multi-linear regression analysis and discussed. Overall, barley brewing was shown to be reproducible, efficient, and generally comparable to conventional malt brewing. The contrast between these two brewing strategies potentially identifies barley and malt quality parameters worthy of further study to improve brewing efficiency, and product quality, from both production systems. © 2014 American Society of Brewing Chemists, Inc.

Finlayson J.,University of Western Australia | Real D.,University of Western Australia | Nordblom T.,University of Western Australia | Nordblom T.,University of New South Wales | And 4 more authors.
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2012

Tedera (Bituminaria bituminosa C.H. Stirt var. albomarginata) is a drought tolerant perennial legume originating in the Canary Islands. This study evaluates the potential role and value of tedera in dryland mixed crop and sheep production systems in southern Australia. Regional variants of the bio-economic model MIDAS are used to assess tedera in farming systems at two locations. The analysis considers the quantity and quality of feed produced by tedera, the ability of other forages to complement or substitute for tedera and its impact on meat versus wool-producing sheep flocks. The results indicate that tedera offers the potential to increase farm profits by up to 26% and be grown on ∼28% of a low rainfall mixed enterprise farm. On a high rainfall mixed enterprise farm tedera may boost profit by up to 58% and be grown on ∼75% of the farm. The modelled increases in farm profit were large and relate to savings in supplementary feed and higher stocking rates. The results of our analysis suggest additional experimental and breeding work is required but the current state of knowledge is consistent with tedera becoming an important forage in southern Australian farming systems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Browne N.A.,University of Melbourne | Behrendt R.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Kingwell R.S.,University of Western Australia | Kingwell R.S.,Australian Export Grains Innovation Center | Eckard R.J.,University of Melbourne
Animal Production Science | Year: 2015

Australian agriculture generated 15% of national greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) in 2011, with CH4 and N2O accounting for 12 and 3% of national emissions, respectively. In 2011, the Australian government introduced a voluntary carbon offset scheme called the Carbon Farming Initiative, which enables farmers to earn carbon credits by lowering GHGE or sequestering carbon. One way of reducing emissions is to decrease the number of replacement animals required on-farm and increase the amount of product that animals produce across their lifetime. This study explores two options for reducing GHGE over an animal's lifetime: (1) changing from an annual calving system to extended lactation system on dairy farms; and (2) increasing the longevity of ewes on wool enterprises to produce an extra year of wool and offspring. The biophysical models DairyMod and GrassGro were used to simulate the dairy and wool enterprises, respectively, and GHGE were calculated using the Australian National Inventory methodology. Extended lactation produced lower total emissions and emissions intensity (t CO2e/t milk fat plus protein) than annual calving and also resulted in higher operating profits. The GHGE from increasing longevity on sheep enterprises was similar to the baseline scenario, largely as a result of similar stocking rates. Extended lactation had greater potential of reducing emissions than increasing longevity on wool enterprises because there was a larger increase in the production of milk fat plus protein across cows' lifetimes, as well as greater reductions in the number of replacement animals required on the enterprise. This research demonstrated that the profitability of farm enterprises would be driven more by productivity than claiming carbon offsets from these management changes. © CSIRO 2015.

Kingwell R.,University of Western Australia | Kingwell R.,Australian Export Grains Innovation Center | Squibb L.,University of Western Australia
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2015

In Mediterranean-type environments, livestock productivity in mixed livestock and cropping enterprises often is limited by a period of feed scarcity that extends from late autumn, when dry residues of crops and pastures from the previous growing season are being exhausted, through to early winter when green feed is just commencing. Dual-purpose crops have been developed as a source of winter green feed, while still being a source of grain at harvest. These crops increase feed availability and boost livestock productivity. This study evaluates the role and value of dual-purpose wheat and canola crops, in combination with lucerne, in mixed-enterprise farming systems that experience a Mediterranean-type climate. Using bioeconomic modelling, the value of dual-purpose crops is assessed under a range of yield, price and technical assumptions. For an Australian study region, the robust finding is that the joint inclusion of dual-purpose crops and lucerne greatly increases the farming-system profits. Under standard assumptions when the farming system is operated to maximise profit, farm profit increases by AU$68000 (or 88% over the base case) following the inclusion of both dual-purpose wheat and canola. The increase in profit is attributable to wool and sheep sales rising by 261%, yet the proportions of crop and pasture remain similar with or without the dual-purpose crops. Importantly, the proportion of the pasture area that is lucerne greatly increases to complement the increase in feed availability generated by the dual-purpose crops. The resultant large increase in feed availability in winter and summer allows the stocking rate to increase so sheep numbers and sheep turn-off become the main source of the increase in profit. Sensitivity analysis shows that even with significant commodity price fluctuations and further reduction in grain yield caused by grazing, and exclusion of lucerne, inclusion of dual-purpose crops in these farming systems still increases farm profit. © 2015 CSIRO.

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