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Barclay A.W.,Australian Diabetes Council | Brand-Miller J.C.,University of Sydney
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

In 2011, Barclay and Brand-Miller reported the observation that trends in refined sugar consumption in Australia were the inverse of trends in overweight and obesity (The Australian Paradox). Rikkers et al. claim that the Australian Paradox is based on incomplete data because the sources utilised did not incorporate estimates for imported processed foods. This assertion is incorrect. Indeed, national nutrition surveys, sugar consumption data from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation, the Australian Bureau of Statistics and Australian beverage industry data all incorporated data on imported products. © 2013 Barclay and Brand-Miller; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Patterson C.,Queens University of Belfast | Guariguata L.,International Diabetes Federation | Dahlquist G.,Umea University | Soltesz G.,University of Pecs | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2014

This paper describes the methodology, results and limitations of the 2013 International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Atlas (6th edition) estimates of the worldwide numbers of prevalent cases of type 1 diabetes in children (<15 years). The majority of relevant information in the published literature is in the form of incidence rates derived from registers of newly diagnosed cases. Studies were graded on quality criteria and, if no information was available in the published literature, extrapolation was used to assign a country the rate from an adjacent country with similar characteristics. Prevalence rates were then derived from these incidence rates and applied to United Nations 2012 Revision population estimates for 2013 for each country to obtain estimates of the number of prevalent cases.Data availability was highest for the countries in Europe (76%) and lowest for the countries in sub-Saharan Africa (8%). The prevalence estimates indicate that there are almost 500,000 children aged under 15 years with type 1 diabetes worldwide, the largest numbers being in Europe (129,000) and North America (108,700). Countries with the highest estimated numbers of new cases annually were the United States (13,000), India (10,900) and Brazil (5000). Compared with the prevalence estimates made in previous editions of the IDF Diabetes Atlas, the numbers have increased in most of the IDF Regions, often reflecting the incidence rate increases that have been well-documented in many countries.Monogenic diabetes is increasingly being recognised among those with clinical features of type 1 or type 2 diabetes as genetic studies become available, but population-based data on incidence and prevalence show wide variation due to lack of standardisation in the studies. Similarly, studies on type 2 diabetes in childhood suggest increased incidence and prevalence in many countries, especially in Indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities, but detailed population-based studies remain limited. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Ecological research from the USA has demonstrated a positive relationship between sugars consumption and prevalence of obesity; however, the relationship in other nations is not well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in obesity and sugar consumption in Australia over the past 30 years and to compare and contrast obesity trends and sugar consumption patterns in Australia with the UK and USA. Data on consumption of sugar in Australia, the UK and USA were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization for the years 1980-2003. The prevalence of obesity has increased 3 fold in Australians since 1980. In Australia, the UK and USA, per capita consumption of refined sucrose decreased by 23%, 10% and 20% respectively from 1980 to 2003. When all sources of nutritive sweeteners, including high fructose corn syrups, were considered, per capita consumption decreased in Australia (-16%) and the UK (-5%), but increased in the USA (+23%). In Australia, there was a reduction in sales of nutritively sweetened beverages by 64 million liters from 2002 to 2006 and a reduction in percentage of children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages between 1995 and 2007. The findings confirm an "Australian Paradox"--a substantial decline in refined sugars intake over the same timeframe that obesity has increased. The implication is that efforts to reduce sugar intake may reduce consumption but may not reduce the prevalence of obesity. Source

Louie J.C.Y.,University of Wollongong | Louie J.C.Y.,University of Sydney | Flood V.M.,University of Wollongong | Flood V.M.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2015

We aimed to produce an updated Australian glycaemic index (GI) database based on a systematic method. GI values were assigned to the 3871 unique foods in an Australian food composition database. Following the method, 1124 (29%) foods had less than 2.5. g of available carbohydrates per 100. g and were assigned a GI of 0, and 416 (11%) foods had a direct match in one of the three data tables used. The GI value of a 'closely related' food was assigned to 1793 (46%) foods; 135 foods (3%) had their GI values calculated using the weighted average GI method; 391 (10%) foods were assigned the median GI of their corresponding food subgroup, and 12 (<1%) foods were assigned a GI of 0 because they were not significant sources of carbohydrates in a typical diet. For the 3634 foods which received a GI value in the 2009 assignment, 1954 (53.8%) had an updated GI value, and the mean. ±. SD difference between the 2009 and current assigned values was +3.0. ±. 16.0 units (paired sample t-test p<. 0.001). Acknowledging some limitations, this database will enhance the utility of the GI concept in research and clinical settings in Australia (199 words). © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Marsh K.,Northside Nutrition and Dietetics | Barclay A.,Australian Diabetes Council | Colagiuri S.,University of Sydney | Brand-Miller J.,University of Sydney
Current Diabetes Reports | Year: 2011

Medical nutrition therapy is the first line of treatment for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and plays an essential part in the management of type 1 diabetes. Although traditionally advice was focused on carbohydrate quantification, it is now clear that both the amount and type of carbohydrate are important in predicting an individual's glycemic response to a meal. Diets based on carbohydrate foods that are more slowly digested, absorbed, and metabolized (i.e., low glycemic index [GI] diets) have been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, whereas intervention studies have shown improvements in insulin sensitivity and glycated hemoglobin concentrations in people with diabetes following a low GI diet. Research also suggests that low GI diets may assist with weight management through effects on satiety and fuel partitioning. These findings, together with the fact that there are no demonstrated negative effects of a low GI diet, suggest that the GI should be an important consideration in the dietary management and prevention of diabetes. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source

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