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Khliji S.,Center for Sheep Meat Development | Khliji S.,University of Catania | van de Ven R.,Orange Agricultural Institute | Lamb T.A.,Center for Sheep Meat Development | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2010

Given the lack of data that relates consumer acceptance of lamb colour to instrument measures a study was undertaken to establish the acceptability thresholds for fresh and displayed meat. Consumers (n = 541) were asked to score 20 samples of lamb loin (m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum; LL) on an ordinal scale of 1 (very acceptable) to 5 (very unacceptable). A sample was considered acceptable by a consumer if it scored three or less. Ten samples were used for testing consumer response to fresh colour and 10 to test consumer response to colour during display of up to 4 days. The colour of fresh meat was measured using a Minolta chromameter with a closed cone and a Hunter Lab Miniscan was used for measuring meat on display. For fresh meat when the a* (redness) and L* (lightness) values are equal to or exceed 9.5 and 34, respectively, on average consumers will consider the meat colour acceptable. However a* and L* values must be much higher (14.5 and 44, respectively) to have 95% confidence that a randomly selected consumer will consider a sample acceptable. For aged meat, when the wavelength ratio (630/580 nm) and the a* values are equal to or greater than 3.3 and 14.8, respectively, on average consumers will consider the meat acceptable. These thresholds need to be increased to 6.8 for ratio (630/580 nm) and 21.7 for a* to be 95% confident that a randomly selected consumer will consider a sample acceptable. Crown Copyright © 2010. Source


Kitessa S.,Australian Cooperative Research Center for Sheep Industry Innovation | Liu S.,Australian Cooperative Research Center for Sheep Industry Innovation | Briegel J.,Australian Cooperative Research Center for Sheep Industry Innovation | Pethick D.,Australian Cooperative Research Center for Sheep Industry Innovation | And 13 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2010

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) for which there is ample evidence of human health benefits, and these are also the fatty acids for which there are cut-off points for 'source' and 'good source' claims. Two consecutive experiments were conducted to determine the effect of finishing systems on the n-3 PUFA content of lamb meat in Western Australia. In experiment I, a 4-week feeding experiment was conducted using 48 Poll Dorset Merino lambs. The lambs were divided into two lots of 24 (12 males and 12 females) and randomly assigned to either concentrate (C1) finishing on commercial lamb finishing pellets or pasture (P) finishing on kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) pasture. In experiment II, 28 lambs were divided into two groups of 14 lambs (seven males and seven females) and assigned to finishing either on concentrate pellets (C2) or concentrate pellets plus linseed (C2-L). This second experiment was conducted indoors for 10 weeks. The initial liveweight (mean s.e.) of the lambs was 43 0.6 and 32.5 0.9 kg for experiments I and II, respectively. At the end of experiment II, three chops each were sampled from the leg, loin, forequarter and neck region of each carcass. The final liveweight (42 0.8 v. 50 1.2 kg), hot carcass weight (19 0.5 v. 24 0.7 kg) and GR depth (5.6 0.6 v. 12.8 0.6 mm) were lower (P 0.05) for P than C1 lambs. In contrast, C2 and C2-L lambs had similar final liveweight (44 0.7 v. 45 0.9 kg), hot carcass weight (19 0.3 v. 20 0.5 kg) and GR depth (13 1.3 v. 14 1.2 mm). In experiment I, the total n-3 PUFA yields for C1 and P lambs in the M. longissimus lumborum were 67 2.5 and 78 3.2 mg per 100 g muscle, respectively. The EPA plus DHA yields were 17 and 21 mg per 100 g muscle, respectively. The sum of the long-chain ( Source


Pannier L.,Australian Cooperative Research Center for Sheep Industry Innovation | Pannier L.,Murdoch University | Gardner G.E.,Australian Cooperative Research Center for Sheep Industry Innovation | Gardner G.E.,Murdoch University | And 9 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The impact of selecting for lean meat yield using breeding values for increased eye muscle depth (PEMD) and decreased fat depth (PFAT) on the consumer acceptance of lamb meat was evaluated. Consumer sensory scores (tenderness, juiciness, flavour, odour, overall liking) were obtained for the longissimus lumborum (loin) and semimembranosus (topside) muscles of 1471 lambs. On average loin samples were more acceptable for consumers. Sensory scores increased with higher IMF levels, with lower shear force levels, and when animals were younger and less muscular. Increasing PEMD decreased tenderness, overall liking and flavour scores in both muscles, and decreasing PFAT reduced tenderness within the loin samples only. This negative impact of PEMD and PFAT is not solely driven through the phenotypic impact of IMF and shear force on sensory scores. Our results confirm the growing concerns that selecting for lean meat yield would reduce consumer eating quality, and highlight that careful monitoring of selection programmes is needed to maintain lamb eating quality. © 2013 The Authors. Source


Pannier L.,Australian Cooperative Research Center for Sheep Industry Innovation | Pannier L.,Murdoch University | Pethick D.W.,Australian Cooperative Research Center for Sheep Industry Innovation | Pethick D.W.,Murdoch University | And 7 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

There is a concern regarding the possible decline of nutritional value of meat with an increasing selection for lean meat yield. The selection for reduced fatness reduces muscle aerobicity and possible subsequent mineral concentrations. Average concentrations of iron and zinc of 5625 lamb longissimus muscles were 2.03 and 2.43. mg/100. g, qualifying as a good source claim for the majority of the population. Reduced post-weaning fat depth was associated with decreased concentrations of iron but not zinc, whereas post-weaning eye muscle depth and weaning weight were not associated with either mineral. These results confirm that the impact of lean meat yield selection on these minerals is minimal, but should be monitored to avoid lower levels. Both minerals had a positive relationship with age at slaughter, highlighting age as a key determinant of the concentration of these nutrients. The magnitude of the positive associations of isocitrate dehydrogenase and myoglobin with iron was larger than for zinc, but they strongly indicated the association of these aerobic makers with both minerals. © 2013 The Authors. Source


Kitessa S.M.,Australian Cooperative Research Center for Sheep Industry Innovation | Kitessa S.M.,CSIRO | Young P.,Australian Cooperative Research Center for Sheep Industry Innovation | Young P.,CSIRO | And 8 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Vegetable oils containing stearidonic acid (SDA, 18 : 4n-3) are considered better precursors of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) than those with only α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3). The present study re-examined this premise using treatments where added ALA from linseed oil was matched with ALA plus SDA from echium oil. Lambs (n 6) were abomasally infused with saline (control (C), 25 ml), echium oil low (EL, 25 ml), echium oil high (EH, 50 ml), linseed oil low (LL, 25 ml) or linseed oil high (LH, 50 ml) for 4 weeks. The basal ration used was identical across all treatments. EPA (20 : 5n-3) in meat increased from 6•5 mg in the C lambs to 16•8, 17•7, 13•5 and 11•7 (sem 0•86) mg/100 g muscle in the EL, EH, LL and LH lambs, respectively. For muscle DPA (docosapentaenoic acid; 22 : 5n-3), the corresponding values were 14•3, 22•2, 18•6 18•2 and 19•4 (sem 0•57) mg/100 g muscle. The DHA (22 : 6n-3) content of meat was 5•8 mg/100 g in the C lambs and ranged from 4•53 to 5•46 (sem 0•27) mg/100 g muscle in the oil-infused groups. Total n-3 PUFA content of meat (including ALA and SDA) increased from 39 mg to 119, 129, 121 and 150 (sem 12•3) mg/100 g muscle. We conclude that both oil types were effective in enhancing the EPA and DPA, but not DHA, content of meat. Furthermore, we conclude that, when balanced for precursor n-3 fatty acid supply, differences between linseed oil and echium oil in enriching meat with LC n-3 PUFA were of little, if any, nutritional significance. © 2011 The Authors. Source

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