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Tamaki H.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Tamaki H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Zhang R.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Zhang R.,National University of Singapore | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Viruses have been detected in the different stages of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) at concentrations of 10 8-10 10ml -1 of virus-like particles (VLPs), 10-1000 times higher than in natural aquatic environments, suggesting that WWTPs can be considered as an important reservoir and source of viruses. This study revealed novel diversity and function with the DNA viral communities in the influent, activated sludge, anaerobic digester, and effluent of a domestic WWTP using metagenomics. WWTP was a very specific environment, with less than 5% of the >936000 metagenomic sequences obtained (∼70-119Mbp per sample) similar to sequences present in other environmental viromes. Many viruses found in the WWTP were novel, resulting in only <5-20% of the reads being phylogenetically or functionally assigned. DNA metabolism was observed as the most abundant function with DNA methylase detected at levels 4.2-fold higher than other published viromes, while carbohydrate and amino acids metabolisms were 3.7- and 4.2-fold less abundant respectively. These specific aspects of the WWTP community functions are likely due to high biomass concentration, turnover rate and microbial activity in WWTPs, and likely include mechanisms that help viruses increase their infectivity. Among ∼500 genotypes estimated in individual WWTP viromes,>82% were shared. These data suggested that VLPs of most viral types could be present between 1 and 30 days in the process before they were discharged. Viruses in WWTP and the discharged ones can have potential impacts on the functioning of the wastewater treatment system and on the dynamics of microbial community in the surrounding aquatic environments respectively. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Lapidus A.,U.S. Department of Energy | Chertkov O.,U.S. Department of Energy | Chertkov O.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Nolan M.,U.S. Department of Energy | And 38 more authors.
Standards in Genomic Sciences | Year: 2011

Flexistipes sinusarabici Fiala et al. 2000 is the type species of the genus Flexistipes in the fami-ly Deferribacteraceae. The species is of interest because of its isolated phylogenetic location in a genomically under-characterized region of the tree of life, and because of its origin from a multiply extreme environment; the Atlantis Deep brines of the Red Sea, where it had to struggle with high temperatures, high salinity, and a high concentrations of heavy metals. This is the fourth completed genome sequence to be published of a type strain of the family Deferribacteraceae. The 2,526,590 bp long genome with its 2,346 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. Source


Pantos O.,University of Queensland | Bongaerts P.,University of Queensland | Dennis P.G.,University of Queensland | Tyson G.W.,Australian Center for Ecogenomics | And 2 more authors.
ISME Journal | Year: 2015

Reef-building corals form complex relationships with a range of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea, fungi and the unicellular microalgae of the genus Symbiodinium, which together form the coral holobiont. These symbionts are known to have both beneficial and deleterious effects on their coral host, but little is known about what the governing factors of these relationships are, or the interactions that exist between the different members of the holobiont and their environment. Here we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing to investigate how archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the widespread scleractinian coral Seriatopora hystrix are influenced by extrinsic (reef habitat and geographic location) and intrinsic (host genotype and Symbiodinium subclade) factors. Bacteria dominate the microbiome of S. hystrix, with members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes being the most predominant in all samples. The richness and evenness of these communities varied between reef habitats, but there was no significant difference between distinct coral host lineages or corals hosting distinct Symbiodinium subclades. The coral microbiomes correlated to reef habitat (depth) and geographic location, with a negative correlation between Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, driven by the key members of both groups (Rhodobacteraceae and Hahellaceae, respectively), which showed significant differences between location and depth. This study suggests that the control of microbial communities associated with the scleractinian coral S. hystrix is driven primarily by external environmental conditions rather than by those directly associated with the coral holobiont. Source


Skennerton C.T.,Australian Center for Ecogenomics | Skennerton C.T.,University of Queensland | Skennerton C.T.,California Institute of Technology | Barr J.J.,University of Queensland | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2015

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is an important industrial wastewater treatment process mediated by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs). Members of the genus CandidatusAccumulibacter are one of the most extensively studied PAO as they are commonly enriched in lab-scale EBPR reactors. Members of different Accumulibacter clades are often enriched through changes in reactor process conditions; however, the two currently sequenced Accumulibacter genomes show extensive metabolic similarity. Here, we expand our understanding of Accumulibacter genomic diversity through recovery of eight population genomes using deep metagenomics, including seven from phylogenetic clades with no previously sequenced representative. Comparative genomic analysis revealed a core of shared genes involved primarily in carbon and phosphorus metabolism; however, each Accumulibacter genome also encoded a substantial number of unique genes (>700 genes). A major difference between the Accumulibacter clades was the type of nitrate reductase encoded and the capacity to perform subsequent steps in denitrification. The Accumulibacter clade IIF genomes also contained acetaldehyde dehydrogenase that may allow ethanol to be used as carbon source. These differences in metabolism between Accumulibacter genomes provide a molecular basis for niche differentiation observed in lab-scale reactors and may offer new opportunities for process optimization. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Skennerton C.T.,Australian Center for Ecogenomics | Skennerton C.T.,University of Queensland | Imelfort M.,Australian Center for Ecogenomics | Imelfort M.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) constitute a bacterial and archaeal adaptive immune system that protect against bacteriophage (phage). Analysis of CRISPR loci reveals the history of phage infections and provides a direct link between phage and their hosts. All current tools for CRISPR identification have been developed to analyse completed genomes and are not well suited to the analysis of metagenomic data sets, where CRISPR loci are difficult to assemble owing to their repetitive structure and population heterogeneity. Here, we introduce a new algorithm, Crass, which is designed to identify and reconstruct CRISPR loci from raw metagenomic data without the need for assembly or prior knowledge of CRISPR in the data set. CRISPR in assembled data are often fragmented across many contigs/scaffolds and do not fully represent the population heterogeneity of CRISPR loci. Crass identified substantially more CRISPR in metagenomes previously analysed using assembly-based approaches. Using Crass, we were able to detect CRISPR that contained spacers with sequence homology to phage in the system, which would not have been identified using other approaches. The increased sensitivity, specificity and speed of Crass will facilitate comprehensive analysis of CRISPRs in metagenomic data sets, increasing our understanding of phage-host interactions and co-evolution within microbial communities. © 2013 The Author(s) 2013. Source

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