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Leelarathna L.,Institute of Metabolic Science | Little S.A.,Newcastle University | Walkinshaw E.,SheffieldUniversity | Tan H.K.,Derriford Hospital | And 12 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

Objective-Impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) and defective counterregulation significantly increase severe hypoglycemia risk in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We evaluated restoration of IAH/defective counterregulation by a treatment strategy targeted at hypoglycemia avoidance in adults with T1D with IAH (Gold score ≥4) participating in the U.K.-based multicenter HypoCOMPaSS randomized controlled trial. Research design and methods-Eighteen subjects with T1D and IAH (mean ± SD age 50 ± 9 years, T1D duration 35 ± 10 years, HbA1c 8.1 ± 1.0% [65 ± 10.9 mmol/mol]) underwent stepped hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp studies before and after a 6-month intervention. The intervention comprised the HypoCOMPaSS education tool in all and randomized allocation, in a 232 factorial study design, to multiple daily insulin analog injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy and conventional glucose monitoring or real-time continuous glucose monitoring. Symptoms, cognitive function, and counterregulatory hormones were measured at each glucose plateau (5.0, 3.8, 3.4, 2.8, and 2.4 mmol/L), with each step lasting 40 min with subjects kept blinded to their actual glucose value throughout clamp studies. Results-After intervention, glucose concentrations at which subjects first felt hypoglycemic increased (mean ± SE from 2.6 ± 0.1 to 3.1 ± 0.2 mmol/L, P = 0.02), and symptom and plasma metanephrine responses to hypoglycemia were higher (median area under curve for symptoms, 580 [interquartile range {IQR} 420-780] vs. 710 [460-1,260], P = 0.02; metanephrine, 2,412 [-3,026 to 7,279] vs. 5,180 [-771 to 11,513], P = 0.01). Glycemic threshold for deterioration of cognitive function measured by four-choice reaction time was unchanged, while the color-word Stroop test showed a degree of adaptation. Conclusions-Even in long-standing T1D, IAH and defective counterregulation may be improved by a clinical strategy aimed at hypoglycemia avoidance. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

Barendse S.,AHP Research | Singh H.,University of Virginia | Frier B.M.,Royal Infirmary | Speight J.,AHP Research | And 2 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2012

As a common side effect of insulin treatment for diabetes, hypoglycaemia is a constant threat and can have far-reaching and potentially devastating consequences, including immediate physical injury as well as more pervasive cognitive, behavioural and emotional effects. Moreover, as a significant limiting factor in achieving optimal glycaemic control, exposure to hypoglycaemia can influence diabetes self-management. Although hypoglycaemia is known to occur in Type 2 diabetes, its morbidity and impact on the individual are not well recognized. The aim of the current review is to examine published evidence to achieve a synthesis of the scope and significance of the potential detriment caused by hypoglycaemia to individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The implications of these observations for treatment and research have also been considered. A narrative review was performed of empirical papers published in English since 1966, reporting the effect of hypoglycaemia on quality of life and related outcomes (including generic and diabetes-specific quality of life, emotional well-being and health utilities) in Type 2 diabetes. Research demonstrates the potential impact of hypoglycaemia on the lives of people with Type2 diabetes, from an association with depressive symptoms and heightened anxiety, to impairment of the ability to drive, work and function in ways that are important for quality of life. Few studies consider hypoglycaemia as an explanatory variable in combination with quality of life or related primary endpoints. As a consequence, there is a pressing need for high-quality research into the overall impact of hypoglycaemia on the lives of people with Type2 diabetes. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK. Source

Little S.A.,Newcastle University | Leelarathna L.,University of Cambridge | Walkinshaw E.,University of Sheffield | Chapple O.,Bournemouth Diabetes and Endocrine Center | And 14 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) can be improved and severe hypoglycemia (SH) prevented in type 1 diabetes, we compared an insulin pump (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]) with multiple daily injections (MDIs) and adjuvant real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT) with conventional self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 24-week 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial in adults with type 1 diabetes and IAH was conducted. All received comparable education, support, and congruent therapeutic targets aimed at rigorous avoidance of biochemical hypogly-cemia without relaxing overall control. Primary end point was between-intervention difference in 24-week hypoglycemia awareness (Gold score). RESULTS: A total of 96 participants (mean diabetes duration 29 years) were randomized. Overall, biochemical hypoglycemia (≤3.0 mmol/L) decreased (53 ± 63 to 24 ± 56 min/24 h; P = 0.004 [t test]) without deterioration in HbA1c. Hypoglycemia awareness improved (5.1 ± 1.1 to 4.1 ± 1.6; P = 0.0001 [t test]) with decreased SH (8.9 ± 13.4 to 0.8 ± 1.8 episodes/patient-year; P = 0.0001 [t test]). At 24 weeks, there was no significant difference in awareness comparing CSII with MDI (4.1 ± 1.6 vs. 4.2 ± 1.7; difference 0.1; 95% CI 20.6to 0.8) and RTwith SMBG (4.3 ± 1.6 vs. 4.0 ± 1.7; difference 20.3; 95% CI 21.0 to 0.4). Between-group analyses demonstrated comparable reductions in SH, fear of hypoglycemia, and insulin doses with equivalent HbA1c. Treatment satisfaction was higher with CSII than MDI (32 ± 3 vs. 29 ± 6; P = 0.0003 [t test]), but comparable with SMBG and RT (30 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 5; P = 0.79 [t test]). CONCLUSIONS: Hypoglycemia awareness can be improved and recurrent SH prevented in longstanding type 1 diabetes without relaxing HbA1c. Similar biomedical outcomes can be attained with conventional MDI and SMBG regimens compared with CSII/RT, although satisfaction was higher with CSII. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

Browne J.L.,Australian Center for Behavioural Research in Diabetes | Browne J.L.,Deakin University | Ventura A.,Australian Center for Behavioural Research in Diabetes | Ventura A.,Deakin University | And 4 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2014

Objectives: While health-related stigma has been the subject of considerable research in other conditions (eg, HIV/AIDS, obesity), it has not received substantial attention in diabetes. Our aim was to explore perceptions and experiences of diabetes-related stigma from the perspective of adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Design: A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Setting: All interviews were conducted in non-clinical settings in metropolitan areas of Victoria, Australia. Participants: Adults aged ≥18 years with T1DM living in Victoria were eligible to take part. Participants were recruited primarily through the state consumer organisation representing people with diabetes. A total of 27 adults with T1DM took part: 15 (56%) were women; median IQR age was 42 (23) years and diabetes duration was 15 (20) years). Results: Australian adults with T1DM perceive and experience T1DM-specific stigma as well as stigma-by-association with type 2 diabetes. Such stigma is characterised by blame, negative social judgement, stereotyping, exclusion, rejection and discrimination. Participants identified the media, family and friends, healthcare professionals and school teachers as sources of stigma. The negative consequences of this stigma span numerous life domains, including impact on relationships and social identity, emotional well-being and behavioural management of T1DM. This stigma also led to reluctance to disclose the condition in various environments. Adults with T1DM can be both the target and the source of diabetes-related stigma. Conclusions: Stigmatisation is part of the social experience of living with T1DM for Australian adults. Strategies and interventions to address and mitigate this diabetes-related stigma need to be developed and evaluated. Source

Cooke D.,University of Surrey | Bond R.,University of Sussex | Lawton J.,University of Edinburgh | Rankin D.,University of Edinburgh | And 5 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE-To determine whether improvements in glycemic control and diabetes-specific quality of life (QoL) scores reported in research studies for the type 1 diabetes structured education program Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) are also found when the intervention is delivered within routine U.K. health care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Before and after evaluation of DAFNE to assess impact on glycemic control and QoL among 262 adults with type 1 diabetes. RESULTS-There were significant improvements in HbA1c from baseline to 6 and 12 months (from 9.1 to 8.6 and 8.8%, respectively) in a subgroup with suboptimal control. QoL was significantly improved by 3 months and maintained at both follow-up points. CONCLUSIONS-Longer-term improved glycemic control and QoL is achievable among adults with type 1 diabetes through delivery of structured education in routine care, albeit with smaller effect sizes than reported in trials.© 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

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