Curtis A.,Charles Sturt University |
Curtis A.,Flinders University |
Ross H.,University of Queensland |
Marshall G.R.,University of New England of Australia |
And 5 more authors.
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2014
Since the 1980s, natural resource management (NRM) in Australia and New Zealand has been an ambitious experiment with community engagement. Underpinned by theory about public participation, adult education and agricultural extension, but also influenced by neoliberalism's calls for 'smaller government', governments embraced engagement as a cost-effective approach to effecting change. Critiques of community engagement are often misguided as they are frequently based on inauthentic or poor engagement practices. Moreover, these critiques have often failed to grasp the nature of the problems being addressed, acknowledge the contributions of engagement or understand the importance of building adaptive capacity to respond to an increasingly complex and uncertain future. The foundations for this commissioned article emerged at a workshop where we reflected and deliberated on our experience as NRM researchers and practitioners over the past 20 years. We begin by identifying the key theories underpinning community engagement and community-based NRM (CBNRM). We then reflect on the experience with community engagement in NRM over the past 20 years and identify key lessons for practitioners and policy makers. Drawing on these insights, and the developing theory around new governance and resilience thinking, we identify opportunities for community engagement under a range of possible futures. © 2014 Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand Inc.
PubMed | The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, University of the Federal District, ETH Zurich, Justus Liebig University and 27 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2016
Wild and managed bees are well documented as effective pollinators of global crops of economic importance. However, the contributions by pollinators other than bees have been little explored despite their potential to contribute to crop production and stability in the face of environmental change. Non-bee pollinators include flies, beetles, moths, butterflies, wasps, ants, birds, and bats, among others. Here we focus on non-bee insects and synthesize 39 field studies from five continents that directly measured the crop pollination services provided by non-bees, honey bees, and other bees to compare the relative contributions of these taxa. Non-bees performed 25-50% of the total number of flower visits. Although non-bees were less effective pollinators than bees per flower visit, they made more visits; thus these two factors compensated for each other, resulting in pollination services rendered by non-bees that were similar to those provided by bees. In the subset of studies that measured fruit set, fruit set increased with non-bee insect visits independently of bee visitation rates, indicating that non-bee insects provide a unique benefit that is not provided by bees. We also show that non-bee insects are not as reliant as bees on the presence of remnant natural or seminatural habitat in the surrounding landscape. These results strongly suggest that non-bee insect pollinators play a significant role in global crop production and respond differently than bees to landscape structure, probably making their crop pollination services more robust to changes in land use. Non-bee insects provide a valuable service and provide potential insurance against bee population declines.
Ardron J.A.,Marine Conservation Institute |
Clark M.R.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research |
Penney A.J.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and science |
Hourigan T.F.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |
And 7 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2014
The United Nations General Assembly in 2006 and 2009 adopted resolutions that call for the identification and protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) from significant adverse impacts of bottom fishing. While general criteria have been produced, there are no guidelines or protocols that elaborate on the process from initial identification through to the protection of VMEs. Here, based upon an expert review of existing practices, a 10-step framework is proposed: (1) Comparatively assess potential VME indicator taxa and habitats in a region; (2) determine VME thresholds; (3) consider areas already known for their ecological importance; (4) compile information on the distributions of likely VME taxa and habitats, as well as related environmental data; (5) develop predictive distribution models for VME indicator taxa and habitats; (6) compile known or likely fishing impacts; (7) produce a predicted VME naturalness distribution (areas of low cumulative impacts); (8) identify areas of higher value to user groups; (9) conduct management strategy evaluations to produce trade-off scenarios; (10) review and re-iterate, until spatial management scenarios are developed that fulfil international obligations and regional conservation and management objectives. To date, regional progress has been piecemeal and incremental. The proposed 10-step framework combines these various experiences into a systematic approach. © 2013.
Henryks J.,University of Canberra |
Ecker S.,University of Canberra |
Turner B.,University of Canberra |
Denness B.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and science |
Zobel-Zubrzycka H.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and science
Journal of International Food and Agribusiness Marketing | Year: 2016
ABSTRACT: Drawing on interviews with 12 agriculture show winners across a range of different food industries, this report provides a preliminary analysis of the role that agricultural show awards play in branding and marketing food products for commercial sale. In keeping with findings from previous studies, show awards were found to be regarded by producers as prestigious, signifying product excellence. Further, the assessment of the quality of products, the opportunity to receive expert feedback on new products, and a comparative, competitive effect of the show system was found to provide a mechanism to improve quality, helping to support industry standards and foster a culture of innovation. Show awards were identified as especially important in supporting small-scale entrepreneurial endeavors that depend on niche marketing strategies. However, winning awards was shown to contribute more to perceived brand equity of products rather than actual economic gain. To strengthen the impact of show success, participants indicated the need for increased consumer awareness of the meaning of the awards. The authors identify key future directions research could take to maximize the impact of agricultural award systems on the businesses of competitors. © 2016, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Penney A.J.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and science |
Guinotte J.M.,Marine Conservation Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105 on sustainable fisheries (UNGA 2007) establishes three difficult questions for participants in high-seas bottom fisheries to answer: 1) Where are vulnerable marine systems (VMEs) likely to occur?; 2) What is the likelihood of fisheries interaction with these VMEs?; and 3) What might qualify as adequate conservation and management measures to prevent significant adverse impacts? This paper develops an approach to answering these questions for bottom trawling activities in the Convention Area of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) within a quantitative risk assessment and cost : benefit analysis framework. The predicted distribution of deep-sea corals from habitat suitability models is used to answer the first question. Distribution of historical bottom trawl effort is used to answer the second, with estimates of seabed areas swept by bottom trawlers being used to develop discounting factors for reduced biodiversity in previously fished areas. These are used in a quantitative ecological risk assessment approach to guide spatial protection planning to address the third question. The coral VME likelihood (average, discounted, predicted coral habitat suitability) of existing spatial closures implemented by New Zealand within the SPRFMO area is evaluated. Historical catch is used as a measure of cost to industry in a cost : benefit analysis of alternative spatial closure scenarios. Results indicate that current closures within the New Zealand SPRFMO area bottom trawl footprint are suboptimal for protection of VMEs. Examples of alternative trawl closure scenarios are provided to illustrate how the approach could be used to optimise protection of VMEs under chosen management objectives, balancing protection of VMEs against economic loss to commercial fishers from closure of historically fished areas. © 2013 Penney, Guinotte.
Pascoe S.,CSIRO |
Dichmont C.M.,CSIRO |
Vieira S.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Science |
Kompas T.,Australian National University |
And 2 more authors.
Fisheries | Year: 2013
The increasing interest in maximum economic yield (MEY) as a management target has been accompanied by considerable debate as to how MEY should be determined. Different interpretations as to how economic costs are treated may lead to different outcomes. For example, a recent paper by Wang and Wang (2012b) provided a retrospective analysis of a recent buyback program in a major Australian fishery aimed at moving the fishery to MEY and concluded that greater economic benefits would have been achieved had the buyback not taken place. However, the economic assumptions underlying this result are debatable. In this article, we provide our own analysis using corrected economic parameters and suggest that, had the buyback not taken place, industry profits from 2006 to 2009 would have been $22-25 million lower. These new findings are placed in the context of the events that led to the buyback taking place and we conclude that the buyback resulted in substantial benefits to the industry. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Busilacchi S.,James Cook University |
Williams A.J.,James Cook University |
Russ G.R.,James Cook University |
Begg G.A.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and science
Fisheries Management and Ecology | Year: 2012
Retaining coral reef fish for subsistence during commercial fishing is a common practice for indigenous fishers in the Torres Strait, Australia, despite being inconsistent with legislation. Fisher access point surveys were completed between 2004 and 2006 on three islands in Torres Strait to characterise this subsistence practice and assess the level to which it undermines current minimum legal fish sizes. Approximately 15% of the annual total catch was retained for subsistence during commercial fishing. Notably, subsistence catch of the most commercially valuable species almost entirely comprised individuals smaller than the minimum legal sizes. The higher proportions of undersized individuals of valuable species retained during commercial fishing on some of the islands were most likely associated with an increase in professionalism of the fishers. These results demonstrate how the intended outcomes from a management strategy can be undermined when the specific operational conditions of the fishery are not considered. Successful implementation of management arrangements in indigenous communities ultimately depends on the sociocultural conditions of the communities and their understanding and adherence to the rules. A productive way forward for the management of this fishery is greater engagement of indigenous communities and managers in co-management arrangements. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Chesson J.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and science
Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management | Year: 2013
The desire to demonstrate performance with respect to sustainable development has led to a profusion of approaches. The widespread use of quantitative indicators often appears unconnected to any theory of sustainable development. One reason for this disconnect is that theoretical treatments have tended to focus on global and national scales whereas practical attempts to report on sustainable development tend to operate at smaller scales such as regions, industries and corporations. The relevance of existing theory to those reporting at smaller scales is not widely recognised. This paper develops an approach to reporting that is motivated by a theoretical interpretation of sustainable development in terms of assets. The approach is illustrated with a hypothetical example. The asset-based approach can be applied in a variety of contexts (national, regional, industry, corporation and product) and provides a common framework for linking what have been regarded as disparate approaches to reporting on sustainable development. The recognition that different players have responsibilities for different mixes of assets is the key to understanding how performance should be measured and how information can be combined to report at different scales. © 2013 Imperial College Press.
Southwell D.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and science |
Boero V.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and science |
Mewett O.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and science |
McCowen S.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and science |
Hennecke B.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and science
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2013
Wild canids (Canis lupus familiaris, C. l. dingo, C. l. familiaris × l. dingo and Vulpes vulpes) are considered to be major pests in several Australian land tenures. Although a suite of tools is available to reduce the impact of these vertebrate carnivores, the drivers and barriers that influence participation in management and adoption of new management tools are poorly understood. We therefore surveyed public and private land managers, both to record their perceptions toward wild canid management and to identify the social forces that influence the adoption of a new toxin, para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP). The results of the survey demonstrate that PAPP is well placed to overcome barriers to participation in wild canid management. The humaneness of PAPP in relation to target and non-target species, as well as the presence of an antidote, BlueHealer®, appealed to both private and public land managers. However, the adoption of PAPP will not be influenced solely by marketing these features of the toxin. The adoption of PAPP and new pest management tools in general will likely be influenced by beliefs toward the role of pest animals in the ecosystem, neighbour participation in management, and co-ordination of management across land tenures. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Noble C.,Norwegian Institute of Food |
Jones H.A.C.,University of Cambridge |
Damsgard B.,Norwegian Institute of Food |
Flood M.J.,Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and science |
And 4 more authors.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012
Fish can be the recipients of numerous injuries that are potentially deleterious to aquacultural production performance and welfare. This review will employ a systematic approach that classifies injuries in relation to specific anatomical areas of the fish and will evaluate the effects of injury upon production and welfare. The selected areas include the (1) mouth, (2) eye, (3) epidermis and (4) fins. These areas cover a large number of external anatomical features that can be injured during aquacultural procedures and husbandry practices. In particular, these injuries can be diagnosed on live fish, in a farm environment. For each anatomical feature, this review addresses (a) its structure and function and (b) defines key injuries that can affect the fish from a production and a welfare perspective. Particular attention is then given to (c) defining known and potential aquacultural risk factors before (d) identifying and outlining potential short- and long-term farming practices and mitigation strategies to reduce the incidence and prevalence of these injuries. The review then concludes with an analysis of potential synergies between risk factors the type of injury, in addition to identifying potential synergies in mitigation strategies. The paper covers both aquaculture and capture-based aquaculture. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.