Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center for Emerging Infectious Disease

St. Lucia, Australia

Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center for Emerging Infectious Disease

St. Lucia, Australia
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Gubala A.,CSIRO | Gubala A.,Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia | Gubala A.,University of Queensland | Gubala A.,Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center for Emerging Infectious Disease | And 9 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2011

Tibrogargan virus (TIBV) and Coastal Plains virus (CPV) were isolated from cattle in Australia and TIBV has also been isolated from the biting midge Culicoides brevitarsis. Complete genomic sequencing revealed that the viruses share a novel genome structure within the family Rhabdoviridae, each virus containing two additional putative genes between the matrix protein (M) and glycoprotein (G) genes and one between the G and viral RNA polymerase (L) genes. The predicted novel protein products are highly diverged at the sequence level but demonstrate clear conservation of secondary structure elements, suggesting conservation of biological functions. Phylogenetic analyses showed that TIBV and CPV form an independent group within the 'dimarhabdovirus supergroup'. Although no disease has been observed in association with these viruses, antibodies were detected at high prevalence in cattle and buffalo in northern Australia, indicating the need for disease monitoring and further study of this distinctive group of viruses. © 2011 Defence Science & Technology Organisation.


Setoh Y.X.,University of Queensland | Hobson-Peters J.,University of Queensland | Hobson-Peters J.,Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center for Emerging Infectious Disease | Prow N.A.,University of Queensland | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2011

Previous studies have concluded that the Flavivirus prM protein is a suitable viral antigen to distinguish serologically between infections with closely related Flaviviruses (Cardosa et al., 2002). To express the recombinant West Nile virus (WNV) prM antigen fused to a suitable affinity tag for purification, a series of prM-His-tag and prM-V5-tag fusion proteins were generated. Analysis of the prM-His-tag fusion proteins revealed that either prM epitopes were disrupted or the His-tag was not presented properly depending on the location of the His tag and the presence of the prM transmembrane domains in these constructs. This identified domains critical for proper folding of prM, and arrangements that allowed the correct presentation of the His-tag. However, the inclusion of the V5 epitope tag fused to the C terminus of prM allowed formation of the authentic antigenic structure of prM and the proper presentation of the V5 epitope. Capture of tagged recombinant WNV NY99 prM antigen to the solid phase with anti-V5 antibody in ELISA enabled the detection of prM-specific antibodies in WNV NY99-immune horse serum, confirming its potential as a useful diagnostic reagent. © 2011.


Thalmann C.M.,CSIRO | Thalmann C.M.,Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center for Emerging Infectious Disease | Thalmann C.M.,University of Queensland | Cummins D.M.,CSIRO | And 9 more authors.
Virology | Year: 2010

This report describes the discovery and characterization of a new fusogenic orthoreovirus, Broome virus (BroV), isolated from a little red flying-fox (Pteropus scapulatus). The BroV genome consists of 10 dsRNA segments, each having a 3' terminal pentanucleotide sequence conserved amongst all members of the genus Orthoreovirus, and a unique 5' terminal pentanucleotide sequence. The smallest genome segment is bicistronic and encodes two small nonstructural proteins, one of which is a novel fusion associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein responsible for syncytium formation, but no cell attachment protein. The low amino acid sequence identity between BroV proteins and those of other orthoreoviruses (13-50%), combined with phylogenetic analyses of structural and nonstructural proteins provide evidence to support the classification of BroV in a new sixth species group within the genus Orthoreovirus. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.


Gubala A.,CSIRO | Gubala A.,University of Queensland | Gubala A.,Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia | Gubala A.,Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center for Emerging Infectious Disease | And 10 more authors.
Virology | Year: 2010

Ngaingan virus (NGAV) was isolated from a pool of biting midges that were collected in the tropics of northern Australia. Reported here is the full-length sequence of the NGAV genome, which, at over 15.7 kb, is the largest in any rhabdovirus described to date and contains 13 genes, the highest number of genes observed in any (-) ssRNA virus. Seven of these putative genes show no significant homology to known proteins. Like viruses in the genus Ephemerovirus, NGAV possesses a second glycoprotein gene (GNS). Phylogenetic analyses, however, place NGAV within the yet to be classified "Hart Park" group containing Wongabel and Flanders viruses, which do not contain a second glycoprotein gene. Screening of various animal sera from northern Australia has indicated that NGAV is currently circulating in macropods (wallabies, wallaroos and kangaroos), highlighting the need for further studies to determine its potential to cause disease in these species. Crown Copyright © 2009.


Breed A.C.,University of Queensland | Breed A.C.,Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center for Emerging Infectious Disease | Breed A.C.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Field H.E.,Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center for Emerging Infectious Disease | And 4 more authors.
EcoHealth | Year: 2010

Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus (commonly known as flying-foxes) are the natural hosts of several recently emerged zoonotic viruses of animal and human health significance in Australia and Asia, including Hendra and Nipah viruses. Satellite telemetry was used on nine flying-foxes of three species (Pteropus alecto n = 5, P. vampyrus n = 2, and P. neohibernicus n = 2) to determine the scale and pattern of their long-distance movements and their potential to transfer these viruses between countries in the region. The animals were captured and released from six different locations in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and Timor-Leste. Their movements were recorded for a median of 120 (range, 47-342) days with a median total distance travelled of 393 (range, 76-3011) km per individual. Pteropus alecto individuals were observed to move between Australia and Papua New Guinea (Western Province) on four occasions, between Papua New Guinea (Western Province) and Indonesia (Papua) on ten occasions, and to traverse Torres Strait on two occasions. Pteropus vampyrus was observed to move between Timor-Leste and Indonesia (West Timor) on one occasion. These findings expand upon the current literature on the potential for transfer of zoonotic viruses by flying-foxes between countries and have implications for disease risk management and for the conservation management of flying-fox populations in Australia, New Guinea, and the Lesser Sunda Islands. © 2010 International Association for Ecology and Health.


Hobson-Peters J.,AGEN Biomedical Ltd | Hobson-Peters J.,University of Queensland | Hobson-Peters J.,Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center for Emerging Infectious Disease | Shan J.,AGEN Biomedical Ltd | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2010

The autologous red cell agglutination assay reagent consists of an antibody or antibody fragment of a human erythrocyte-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) conjugated to an antigen of interest. This bi-functional reagent causes the agglutination of the patient's erythrocytes in the presence of the antigen-specific antibodies in the patient's serum. Previously, such reagents have been produced either by chemical conjugation or recombinant expression in bacteria. These protocols required laborious processes for purification and refolding. The aim of the work reported in this article was to explore the production of the agglutination assay reagent as both a single chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment and recombinant full-length mAb, expressed in a secreted form in commonly used mammalian cell lines. The DNA encoding the anti-erythrocyte antibodies was linked to that of a diagnostic peptide from West Nile virus, which requires glycosylation for recognition by antibodies present in the sera of infected horses. The expression vectors were designed to allow the rapid directional insertion of DNA encoding other immunogenic peptides to mediate the secretion of agglutinating scFv and full-length mAb reagents from transfected mammalian cells. Stable cell lines were produced for the expression of most, but not all of the constructs. The recombinant reagents could be used directly from the cell culture media after a simple concentration step. The results indicate that further modifications to increase the yield of recombinant protein will enable the direct use of culture supernatant in diagnostic assays without further processing. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Hobson-Peters J.,University of Queensland | Hobson-Peters J.,Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center for Emerging Infectious Disease | Arevalo C.,National University of Costa Rica | Cheah W.Y.,University of Queensland | And 8 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

We conducted a serosurvey for West Nile virus (WNV) infection in equines in Costa Rica in 2004. Antibodies to WNV were detected in 28% of the horses using an epitope blocking ELISA that is specific for WNV. WNV infection was confirmed for a subset of these sera by plaque reduction neutralization tests and Western blot. This is the first evidence of WNV activity in Costa Rica. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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