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Herston, Australia

D'Souza M.,CSIRO | Wark T.,CSIRO | Karunanithi M.,Australian alth Research Center | Ros M.,University of Wollongong
Pervasive and Mobile Computing | Year: 2013

We present the development and evaluation of a realtime indoor localisation system for tracking people. Our aim was to track a person's indoor position using dead-reckoning, while limiting position error without depending on extensive wireless network infrastructure. The Indoor People Tracker used wearable motion sensors, a floor-plan map and a limited wireless sensor network for proximity ranging. We evaluated how the position accuracy of the Indoor People Tracker was affected by floor-plan map features, wireless proximity range and motion information. The advantage of the Indoor People Tracker was found; it was able to achieve accurate position resolution with minimal error, while not depending on wireless proximity.© 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Squitti R.,AFaR Ospedale Fatebenefratelli | Squitti R.,Laboratory of Neurodegeneration | Simonelli I.,IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana | Ventriglia M.,AFaR Ospedale Fatebenefratelli | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2014

The fraction of copper not bound to ceruloplasmin seems altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have addressed this notion evaluating all the studies carried out from 1996 until March 2013 by means of meta-analysis. We performed our analysis on diverse indices evaluating the relationship between copper and ceruloplasmin in general circulation, namely 'Non-Cp copper', '% Non-Cp copper', and 'Adjusted copper'. For Non-Cp copper and % Non-Cp copper, the correct stoichiometry between copper and ceruloplasmin (6-8 atoms of copper for each ceruloplasmin molecule) in healthy controls has been adopted as criterion for the study to be included in the meta-analysis evaluating data with the canonic Walshe's formula for Non-Cp copper. Copper to ceruloplasmin ratio (Cu:Cp), which is an internal quality control check for ceruloplasmin calibration, was used as an index of the actual stoichiometry in the specimens. Adjusted (Adj-Cp) copper, even though less reliable, was calculated, allowing the evaluation of all the studies selected. An additional meta-analysis of systemic total copper was re-calculated accounting for all the studies carried out from 1983 to March 2013. Ten studies were analyzed in the meta-analysis for Non-Cp copper and % Non-Cp copper reaching a pooled total of 599 AD subjects and 867 controls. For Adj-Cp copper, 14 studies were analyzed with a pooled total of 879 AD and 1,712 controls. 27 studies were considered for systemic total copper meta-analysis, with a pooled total of 1,393 AD and 2,159 controls. All the copper indices analyzed were significantly higher in AD subjects compared to healthy controls. © 2014 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Hansen D.,Australian alth Research Center
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2012

Health systems around the world are increasing the adoption of electronic health records to improve access to patient data for administrative, treatment and research purposes. The complexity of the data which is being stored in these electronic health records is providing a number of challenges for health information systems. These challenges cover the capture of standardised data in an individual health information system, extracting necessary information from medical narratives, through to the processing of complex data including physiological, biomedical imaging and genomic data. However the largest challenges are in the interchange of the data and having health information systems use the data to provide intelligent decision support. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Croft A.,Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital | Walsh A.,St. Vincents Hospital | Doecke J.,Australian alth Research Center | Doecke J.,CSIRO | And 5 more authors.
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Background Up to 40% of patients who present with acute severe ulcerative colitis (UC) fail to make an adequate response to intravenous corticosteroids. Ciclosporin or infliximab are currently employed as salvage therapy in this clinical scenario. Aim To compare clinical outcomes in patients treated with ciclosporin or infliximab in the setting of steroid-refractory acute severe UC. Methods A prospective study of 83 consecutive presentations of steroid-refractory acute severe UC from 1999 to 2009 was conducted. All study participants satisfied the Truelove and Witts' criteria for acute severe UC. The primary outcome measures were rates of colectomy at discharge from hospital and at 3 months and 12 months following admission. Results Eighty-three steroid-refractory acute severe UC events were generated by 83 patients. Salvage therapy was instituted with ciclosporin in 45 patients and infliximab in the remaining 38 patients. Of those patients who received ≥72 h of ciclosporin (2-4 mg/kg), 56% (24/43) avoided colectomy at the time of discharge, while this figure was 84% (32/38) for those administered one dose of infliximab (5 mg/kg) (P = 0.006). At 3 months, the colectomy-free rate was 53% for ciclosporin (23/43) vs. 76% for infliximab (28/37) (P = 0.04), and 42% (18/43) vs. 65% (24/37) at 12 months (P = 0.04). There were no deaths and two serious adverse events, both occurring in the ciclosporin group. Conclusions In this large cohort of patients presenting with acute severe UC, we have observed that infliximab salvage therapy is associated with lower rates of both severe adverse events and colectomy than ciclosporin in the short-term and medium-term. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Ferreira R.C.,University of Cambridge | Guo H.,University of Cambridge | Coulson R.M.R.,University of Cambridge | Smyth D.J.,University of Cambridge | And 20 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2014

Diagnosis of the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes (T1D) is preceded by the appearance of circulating autoantibodies to pancreatic islets. However, almost nothing is known about events leading to this islet autoimmunity. Previous epidemiological and genetic data have associated viral infections and antiviral type I interferon (IFN) immune response genes with T1D. Here, we first used DNA microarray analysis to identify IFN-β-inducible genes in vitro and then used this set of genes to define an IFN-inducible transcriptional signature in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a group of active systemic lupus erythematosus patients (n = 25). Using this predefined set of 225 IFN signature genes, we investigated the expression of the signature in cohorts of healthy controls (n = 87), patients with T1D (n = 64), and a large longitudinal birth cohort of children genetically predisposed to T1D (n = 109; 454 microarrayed samples). Expression of the IFN signature was increased in genetically predisposed children before the development of autoantibodies (P = 0.0012) but not in patients with established T1D. Upregulation of IFN-inducible genes was transient, temporally associated with a recent history of upper respiratory tract infections (P = 0.0064), and marked by increased expression of SIGLEC-1 (CD169), a lectin-like receptor expressed on CD14+ monocytes. DNA variation in IFN-inducible genes altered T1D risk (P = 0.007), as exemplified by IFIH1, one of the genes in our IFN signature for which increased expression is a known risk factor for disease. These findings identify transient increased expression of type I IFN genes in preclinical diabetes as a risk factor for autoimmunity in children with a genetic predisposition to T1D. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

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