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East Melbourne, Australia

Kenealy M.,Cabrini Health | Kenealy M.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Kenealy M.,University of Melbourne | Patton N.,Royal Adelaide Hospital | And 11 more authors.
Leukemia and Lymphoma | Year: 2016

Single agent azacitidine or immunomodulatory drugs are effective in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), with differing target mechanisms and toxicities. Objectives of this ALLG MDS3 study in clinically advanced MDS, AMML and low blast AML were to establish safety, response and quality of life of azacitidine and thalidomide. Patients received azacitidine (75mg/m2/d sc 7days every 28 days), and oral thalidomide up to 100mg/d for maximum 12months. Eighty patients registered; median age 68 years (range 42–82), 49% IPSS int2-high. With 36.5 months follow up, patients received median 9 cycles azacitidine, 6.1mths thalidomide. Nonhematologic toxicity grade 3+ in 85%, commonly infections. Overall response rate was 63%; 26% CR were unaffected by IPSS. Median response duration 26.3months; overall survival was 28.1months. This combination azacitidine and thalidomide in clinically advanced MDS, CMML and low-blast AML was tolerable without unexpected toxicity and encouraging responses support further investigation of combination approaches with hypomethylating agent and immunomodulatory drug. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Lowenthal R.M.,University of Tasmania | Stone J.M.,Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group
Transfusion and Apheresis Science | Year: 2013

The Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group (ALLG) can trace its origins to 1973. It now encompasses virtually all the major hospitals in Australia and New Zealand that treat leukaemias and lymphomas. Over the years the Group as a whole, and members individually, have participated in many clinical treatment trials for aggressive lymphomas. Initially trials were conceived and carried out locally, but in recent years, in addition to continuing its own studies, the Group has been a major contributor to international trials including two that have been particularly influential, known as MInT and CORAL. The MInT study confirmed the value of adding rituximab to standard chemotherapy for aggressive lymphomas; CORAL helped define optimum methods of autografting for relapse. The ALLG has contributed and continues to contribute to the improving outcome for patients with aggressive lymphomas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Branford S.,Center for Cancer Biology | Branford S.,University of Adelaide | Yeung D.T.,Center for Cancer Biology | Yeung D.T.,Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group | And 24 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, a breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL1) value >10% at 3 months of therapy is statistically associated with poorer outcome, yetmanyof these patients still achieve satisfactory outcomes. We in vestigated 528 first-lineimatinib-treated patients to determine whether patients with the poorestoutcome can be better discriminated at 3 months. All outcomes were significantly superior for the 410 patients with BCR-ABL1 ≤10% at 3 months (P < .001). However, the poorest outcomes among the 95 evaluable patients with BCR-ABL1 >10% at 3 months were identified by the rate of BCR-ABL1 decline from baseline, assessed by estimating the number of days over which BCR-ABL1 halved. Patients with BCR-ABL1 halving time <76 days (n = 74) had significantly superior outcomes compared with patients whose BCR-ABL1 values did not halve by 76 days(n = 21; 4-year overall survival, 95% vs 58%, P = .0002; progression-free survival, 92% vs 63%, P = .008; failure-free survival, 59% vs 6%, P < .0001; and major molecular response, 54% vs 5%, P = .008). By multivariate analysis, the halving time was an independent predictor of outcome in this poor risk group. Our study highlighted that the rate of BCR-ABL1 decline may be a critical prognostic discriminator of the patients with very poor outcome among those >10% at 3 months. The International Randomized IFNvs STI571 (IRIS) trialwas registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00006343. The Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Optimization and Selectivity (TOPS) trial was registered at http://www. clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00124748. The Therapeutic Intensification in DE-novo Leukaemia (TIDEL) I trial was registered at http://www.ANZCTR.org.au as #ACTRN12607000614493. The TIDEL II trial was registered at http://www.ANZCTR. org.au as #ACTRN12607000325404. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

Ross D.M.,Haematology | Ross D.M.,Flinders University | Branford S.,Genetic Pathology | Seymour J.F.,Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group | And 18 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2013

Most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with imatinib will relapse if treatment is withdrawn. We conducted a prospective clinical trial of imatinib withdrawal in 40 chronic-phase CML patients who had sustained undetectable minimal residual disease (UMRD) by conventional quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on imatinib for at least 2 years. Patients stopped imatinib and were monitored frequently for molecular relapse. At 24 months, the actuarial estimate of stable treatment-free remission was 47.1%. Most relapses occurred within 4 months of stopping imatinib, and no relapses beyond 27 months were seen. In the 21 patients treated with interferon before imatinib, a shorter duration of interferon treatment before imatinib was significantly associated with relapse risk, as was slower achievement of UMRD after switching to imatinib. Highly sensitive patient-specific BCR-ABL DNA PCR showed persistence of the original CML clone in all patients with stable UMRD, even several years after imatinib withdrawal. No patients with molecular relapse after discontinuation have progressed or developed BCR-ABL mutations (median follow-up, 42 months). All patients who relapsed remained sensitive to imatinib re-treatment. These results confirm the safety and efficacy of a trial of imatinib withdrawal in stable UMRD with frequent, sensitive molecular monitoring and early rescue of molecular relapse. © 2013 by The American Society of Hematology.

Branford S.,Center for Cancer Biology | Branford S.,University of Adelaide | Yeung D.T.,Center for Cancer Biology | Yeung D.T.,University of Adelaide | And 20 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2013

Recent studies have demonstrated that some patients with chronicmyeloid leukemia (CML) can maintain remission after discontinuation of imatinib. A prerequisite is stable, undetectable BCR-ABL1. It is not known how many patients achieve this response or the factors associated with its achievement. We examined 423 de novo imatinib-treated patients to determine the cumulative incidence of achieving the discontinuation criteria as defined in the CML8 study (≥2 years of undetectable BCR-ABL1 [Stable MR4.5]), and predictive factors. After 8 years of imatinib, the cumulative incidence of Stable MR4.5 was 36.5%. Therefore, 9% to 15% of first-line imatinib-treated patients would maintain remission after discontinuation. The BCR-ABL1 level at 3 months and factors at diagnosis were examined for association with Stable MR4.5: Sokal risk, age, sex, and assigned imatinib dose. The only independent predictors were female sex (54.4% vs 27.2%; P = .018) and the 3-month BCR-ABL1 (P ≤ .001). The highest cumulative incidence of Stable MR4.5 after 8 years was 78.2% for patients with BCR-ABL1 ≤ 0.10%IS at 3 months (n = 38). Time to major molecular response (MMR) influenced the time to reach Stable MR4.5 (P < .001), suggesting slower dynamics of response with a delayed MMR. The findings justify the focus on rapid reduction of BCR-ABL1 as a strategy to maximize potential suitability for imatinib discontinuation studies. The Iris trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00006343. The Tops trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00124748. The TIDEL I trial was registered at www.ANZCTR.org.au as ACTRN12607000614493. The TIDEL II trial was registered at www.ANZCTR.org.au as ACTRN12607000325404. © 2013 by The American Society of Hematology.

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