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Valdivia, Chile

Austral University of Chile is a research university in Chile based in Valdivia although it has some institutions and careers in Puerto Montt. Founded by decree on 7 September 1954 it is one of the eight original Chilean Traditional Universities. Juridically it is a nonprofit self-owned corporation under private law and is significantly state-financed. Wikipedia.

Bravo S.,Austral University of Chile
Experimental Parasitology

Gravid females of Caligus rogercresseyi were collected from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from a farm located at Chiloe Island (42°40′S73°15′W), Chile, to obtain information about the reproductive output of this parasite in vitro. The egg strings removed from the females were incubated under controlled conditions to obtain virgin adult females. One female which had mated only once produced eleven generations of eggs strings in a period of 74. days. The first egg strings of the females obtained in vitro were produced at 389 degree days (°D) after egg incubation, while the next generations of eggs strings were produced with a periodicity between 4 and 6. days dependent on the water temperature. The average length of the egg string was 3.1. mm and the mean number of eggs per string was 31. The values recorded in captivity for the egg string length and the number of eggs per string, were lower than the values recorded in gravid females from the field. One female survived for 79. days and males, maintained separately from the females, survived for 60. days. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. Source

Paula S.,Instituto Universitario | Paula S.,Austral University of Chile
Global Ecology and Biogeography

Aim To understand how vegetation mediates the interplay between fire and climate. Specifically, we predict that neither the switching of climatic conditions to high flammability nor the sensitivity of fire to such conditions are universal, but rather depend on fuel (vegetation) structure, which in turn changes with productivity. Location An aridity/productivity gradient on the Iberian Peninsula (Mediterranean Basin). Methods We defined 13 regions distributed along an aridity gradient, which thus differ in productivity and fuel structure. We then assessed the changes in the temporal fire-climate relationship across regions. Specifically, for each region we estimated three variables: the aridity level for switching to flammable conditions (i.e. climatic conditions conducive to fire), the frequency of these flammable conditions and the area burnt under such conditions. These variables were then related to regional aridity and fuel structure indicators. Results In mediterranean ecosystems, the aridity level for switching to flammable conditions increased along the aridity gradient. Differences in fire activity between regions were not explained by the frequency of flammable conditions but by the sensitivity of fire to such conditions, which was higher in wetter and more productive regions. Main conclusions Under mediterranean climatic conditions, fuel structure is more relevant in driving fire activity than the frequency of climatic conditions conducive to fire. At a global scale, fuel also drives the fire-climate relationship because it determines the climatic (aridity) threshold for switching to flammable conditions. Our results emphasize the role of landscape structure in shaping current and future fire-climate relationships at a regional scale, and suggest that future changes in the fire regime (i.e. under global warming) might be different from what it is predicted by climate alone. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Anabalon A.,Adolfo Ibanez University | Oliva J.,Austral University of Chile
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

In this paper two things are done. First, it is pointed out the existence of exact asymptotically flat, spherically symmetric black holes when a self-interacting, minimally coupled scalar field is the source of the Einstein equations in four dimensions. The scalar field potential is recently found to be compatible with the hairy generalization of the Plebanski-Demianski solution of general relativity. This paper describes the spherically symmetric solutions that smoothly connect the Schwarzschild black hole with its hairy counterpart. The geometry and scalar field are everywhere regular except at the usual Schwarzschild-like singularity inside the black hole. The scalar field energy momentum tensor satisfies the null-energy condition in the static region of spacetime. The first law holds when the parameters of the scalar field potential are fixed under thermodynamical variation. Second, it is shown that an extra, dimensionless parameter, present in the hairy solution, allows to modify the gravitational field of a spherically symmetric black hole in a remarkable way. When the dimensionless parameter is increased, the scalar field generates a flat gravitational potential that, however, asymptotically matches the Schwarzschild gravitational field. Finally, it is shown that a positive cosmological constant can render the scalar field potential convex if the parameters are within a specific rank. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Ray S.,Austral University of Chile
Classical and Quantum Gravity

We extend the Birkhoff's theorem in Lovelock gravity for arbitrary base manifolds using an elementary method. In particular, it is shown that any solution of the form of a warped product of a two-dimensional transverse space and an arbitrary base manifold must be static. Moreover, the field equations restrict the base manifold such that all the non-trivial intrinsic Lovelock tensors of the base manifold are constants, which can be chosen arbitrarily, and the metric in the transverse space is determined by a single function of a spacelike coordinate which satisfies an algebraic equation involving the constants characterizing the base manifold along with the coupling constants. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Zambrano A.,Austral University of Chile
Current Alzheimer research

Interleukin-3 (IL-3) regulates the proliferation, survival and differentiation of haematopoietic cells via interaction with specific cell-surface receptors. IL-3 is expressed in several non-hematopoietic cell types. Studies have demonstrated the presence of IL-3 in the central nervous system, however, its physiological role in these cells is poorly understood. Previously we have been demonstrated that IL-3 prevents neuronal death induced by fibrillary β amyloid in these cells, by PI 3-kinase and Jak/STAT pathway activation. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-3 significantly reduced Aβ-promoted neurite degeneration and toxicity. Thus, this cytokine provides cellular protection against Aβ neurotoxicity in primary cortical neuronal cells, by modulating microtubular dynamics and prevention of tau cleavage and hyperphosphorylation. We also demonstrates that IL-3 is expressed in the "in vivo" mouse model of AD, Tg2576, which also expresses human AβPP with the Swedish mutation. In summary, these results suggest that IL-3 could play a neuroprotective role in AD. Source

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