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Ameratunga M.,Austin Health | Asadi K.,Austin HealthVIC | Lin X.,Ontario Cancer Institute | Murone C.,Austin HealthVIC | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Introduction Immune checkpoint inhibition has shifted treatment paradigms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Conflicting results have been reported regarding the immune infiltrate and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) as a prognostic marker. We correlated the immune infiltrate and PD-L1 expression with clinicopathologic characteristics in a cohort of resected NSCLC. Methods A tissue microarray was constructed using triplicate cores from consecutive resected NSCLC. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD8, FOXP3 and PD-L1. Strong PD-L1 expression was predefined as greater than 50% tumor cell positivity. Matched nodal samples were assessed for concordance of PD-L1 expression. Results Of 522 patients, 346 were node-negative (N0), 72 N1 and 109 N2; 265 were adenocarcinomas (AC), 182 squamous cell cancers (SCC) and 75 other. Strong PD-L1 expression was found in 24% cases. In the overall cohort, PD-L1 expression was not associated with survival. In patients with N2 disease, strong PD-L1 expression was associated with significantly improved disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in multivariate analysis (HR 0.49, 95%CI 0.36-0.94, p = 0.031; HR 0.46, 95%CI 0.26-0.80, p = 0.006). In this resected cohort only 5% harboured EGFR mutations, whereas 19% harboured KRAS and 23% other. KRAS mutated tumors were more likely to highly express PD-L1 compared to EGFR (22% vs 3%). A stromal CD8 infiltrate was associated with significantly improved DFS in SCC (HR 0.70, 95%CI 0.50-0.97, p = 0.034), but not AC, whereas FOXP3 was not prognostic. Matched nodal specimens (N = 53) were highly concordant for PD-L1 expression (89%). Conclusion PD-L1 expression was not prognostic in the overall cohort. PD-L1 expression in primary tumor and matched nodal specimens were highly concordant. The observed survival benefit in N2 disease requires confirmation. © 2016 Ameratunga et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Segelov E.,University of New South Wales | Chan D.,Royal North Shore Hospital | Shapiro J.,Monash University | Price T.J.,University of Adelaide | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Purpose: Biologic agents have achieved variable results in relapsed metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Systematic meta-analysis was undertaken to determine the efficacy of biological therapy.Methods: Major databases were searched for randomised studies of mCRC after first-line treatment comparing (1) standard treatment plus biologic agent with standard treatment or (2) standard treatment with biologic agent with the same treatment with different biologic agent(s). Data were extracted on study design, participants, interventions and outcomes. Study quality was assessed using the MERGE criteria. Comparable data were pooled for meta-analysis.Results: Twenty eligible studies with 8225 patients were identified. The use of any biologic therapy improved overall survival with hazard ratio (HR) 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-0.91, P<0.00001), progression-free survival (PFS) with HR 0.71 (95% CI 0.67-0.74, P<0.0001) and overall response rate (ORR) with odds ratio (OR) 2.38 (95% CI 2.03-2.78, P<0.00001). Grade 3/4 toxicity was increased with OR 2.34. Considering by subgroups, EGFR inhibitors (EGFR-I) in the second-line setting and anti-angiogenic therapies (both in second-line and third-line and beyond settings) all improved overall survival, PFS and ORR. EGFR-I in third-line settings improved PFS and ORR but not OS.Conclusions: The use of biologic agents in mCRC after first-line treatment is associated with improved outcomes but increased toxicity. © 2014 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.

Gill R.,Morrow Gastroenterology and Liver Center | Rodov M.,Morrow Gastroenterology and Liver Center | Mohsen W.,Morrow Gastroenterology and Liver Center | Varma P.,Royal Melbourne HospitalVIC | And 12 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2016

Objective: Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that improves survival in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the absence of alternative therapies, sorafenib is often continued despite advancing liver disease or tumour progression. Real world studies are important to better characterise outcomes in these populations. Our aim was to review patterns of sorafenib use across eight Australian tertiary hospitals, defining variables associated with clinical outcomes. Material and methods: Retrospective cohort study of medical records of 320 patients treated with sorafenib for HCC. Baseline clinical parameters, dosage, adverse effects, and survival from initiation of treatment were collected. Time to radiological progression and 3-month alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were available for a subset of patients. Results: Adverse effects occurred in 79% of patients, requiring dose reduction in 31% of patients. Multivariate analysis identified an increased rate of mortality with Child-Pugh C (HR 5.52, p = 0.012), ECOG performance status 2–3 (HR 2.84, p = 0.001), and extrahepatic metastases (HR 1.54, p = 0.04), and decreased rate of mortality with an AFP reduction of at least 20% at 3 months (HR 0.38, p = 0.001). An increased rate of radiological progression was associated with ECOG performance status 2–3 (HR 2.34, p = 0.041), whilst a decreased rate of radiological progression was associated with development of on-treatment diarrhoea (HR 0.55, p = 0.015). Conclusions: Survival in patients with Child-Pugh C liver function or advanced functional impairment treated with sorafenib is poor and thus routine use of this agent in these patients does not appear justified, particularly given the high rate of adverse effects. AFP concentration on therapy may help identify favourable response to treatment. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Abeyrathne C.D.,University of Melbourne | Huynh D.H.,University of Melbourne | McIntire T.W.,University of Melbourne | Nguyen T.C.,University of Melbourne | And 9 more authors.
Analyst | Year: 2016

The Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), is a major pathogen responsible for a variety of infectious diseases ranging from cellulitis to more serious conditions such as septic arthritis and septicaemia. Timely treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential to ensure clinical defervescence and to prevent further complications such as infective endocarditis or organ impairment due to septic shock. To date, initial antibiotic choice is empirical, using a "best guess" of likely organism and sensitivity- an approach adopted due to the lack of rapid identification methods for bacteria. Current culture based methods take up to 5 days to identify the causative bacterial pathogen and its antibiotic sensitivity. This paper provides proof of concept for a biosensor, based on interdigitated electrodes, to detect the presence of S. aureus and ascertain its sensitivity to flucloxacillin rapidly (within 2 hours) in a cost effective manner. The proposed method is label-free and uses non-faradic measurements. This is the first study to successfully employ interdigitated electrodes for the rapid detection of antibiotic resistance. The method described has important potential outcomes of faster definitive antibiotic treatment and more rapid clinical response to treatment. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Chan D.L.,University of Sydney | Pavlakis N.,University of Sydney | Shapiro J.,Monash University | Price T.J.,University of Adelaide | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Importance The EGFR inhibitors (EGFR-I) cetuximab and panitumumab and the angiogenesis inhibitors (AIs) bevacizumab and aflibercept have demonstrated varying efficacy in mCRC. Objective To document the overall impact of specific chemotherapy regimens on the efficacy of targeted agents in treating patients with mCRC. Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched to 2014, supplemented by hand-searching ASCO/ ESMO conference abstracts. Study Selection Published RCTs of patients with histologically confirmed mCRC were included if they investigated either 1) chemotherapy with or without a biological agent or 2) different chemotherapy regimens with the same biological agent. EGFR-I trials were restricted to KRAS exon 2 wild-type (WT) populations. Data Extraction and Synthesis Data were independently abstracted by two authors and trial quality assessed according to Cochrane criteria. The primary outcome was overall survival with secondary endpoints progression free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR) and toxicity. Results EGFR-I added to irinotecan-based chemotherapy modestly improved OS with HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.81-1.00, p = 0.04), but more so PFS with HR 0.77 (95% CI 0.69-0.86, p<0.00001). No benefit was evident for EGFR-I added to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (OS HR 0.97 (95% CI 0.87-1.09) and PFS HR 0.92 (95% CI 0.83-1.02)). Significant oxaliplatin- irinotecan subgroup interactions were present for PFS with I2 = 82%, p = 0.02. Further analyses of oxaliplatin+EGFR-I trials showed greater efficacy with infusional 5FU regimens (PFS HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.94) compared to capecitabine (HR 1.09; 95% CI 0.91-1.30) and bolus 5FU (HR 1.07; 95% CI 0.79-1.45); subgroup interaction was present with I2 = 72%, p = 0.03. The oxaliplatin-irinotecan interaction was not evident for infusional 5FU regimens. For AIs, OS benefit was observed with both oxaliplatin-based (HR 0.83) and irinotecan- based (HR 0.77) regimens without significant subgroup interactions. Oxaliplatin+AI trials showed no subgroup interactions by type of FP, whilst an interaction was present for irinotecan+AI trials although aflibercept was only used with infusional FP (I2 = 89.7%, p = 0.002). Conclusion and Relevance The addition of EGFR-I to irinotecan-based chemotherapy has consistent efficacy, regardless of FP regimen, whereas EGFR-I and oxaliplatin-based regimens were most active with infusional 5FU. No such differential activity was observed with the varying chemotherapy schedules when combined with AIs. © 2015 Chan et al.

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