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Tobal J.E.,University of Buenos Aires | Folguera A.,University of Buenos Aires | Likerman J.,University of Buenos Aires | Naipauer M.,University of Buenos Aires | And 4 more authors.
Tectonophysics | Year: 2015

The hinterland zone of the North Patagonian Andes between 41° and 43°S constitutes a poorly explored sector of the Andes, where no structural studies and scarce geochronological determinations have been carried out. This paper focuses on two isolated volcanic sections hosted at the main Andes, in which field evidence indicates a common synextensional origin. Geochronological data establish that this volcanic event occurred diachronously at the innermost sector of the evolving fold and thrust belt, during middle to late Miocene times. Therefore, the event was briefly coeval and postdated compressive tectonics recognized in the deformational front and correlative to the last phase of pluton emplacement of the North Patagonian Batholith. Local-scale topographic swath profiles performed in this work reveal negative topographic anomalies where normal faults were recognized. Moreover, regional swath profiles show not only a conspicuous depressed zone at the hinterland zone, where the studied sections are located, but also anomalously high altitudes at the foreland zone. In addition, calculated orogenic volumes increase in this sector of the fold and thrust belt, which agrees with recent shortening estimations. These topographic along-strike variations, in association with late Miocene extension following the main compressive stage in the area, are explained by a supercritical stage of the orogenic wedge that would have led to focused extension at the innermost sector of the fold and thrust belt. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kay S.M.,Cornell University | Mpodozis C.,Antofagasta Minerals | Gardeweg M.,AURUM Consultores
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2014

The Central Andean margin, where the name andesite originated, is the type locality for arc andesites erupted through thick continental crust. The <25 Ma mid to high K2O andesites erupted from 25.58S to 28.28S exhibit a large variation in trace element and isotopic ratios, reflecting formation over an evolving slab, a crust thickening to 65-75 kmand a frontal arc that migrated c. 45 km eastward at 8-3 Ma. Andesites at 28-26.88S have the most variable and extreme heavy rare earth element (REE), high field strength element (HFSE) and Ba/La ratios and wt% Na2O, with the highest values in those erupted as the frontal arc migrated and the slab shallowed to the south. The required garnet-bearing, feldspar-free residue is generated in both the thick crust and the mantle wedge, into which crust was injected in a peak of forearc subduction erosion as the arc migrated. Andesites at 25.5-26.88S, east of the Puna plateau under which the slab shallowed at 18-7 Ma and then steepened as lithospheric delamination occurred, generally lack extreme REE and HFSE ratios. Their upper crust-like features reflect eruption in a mixed stress regime and incorporation of westward-flowing radiogenic crust from a region of extensive deep crustal melting to the east. Source


Tobal J.E.,University of Buenos Aires | Folguera A.,University of Buenos Aires | Likerman J.,University of Buenos Aires | Naipauer M.,University of Buenos Aires | And 4 more authors.
Tectonophysics | Year: 2015

The hinterland zone of the North Patagonian Andes between 41° and 43°S constitutes a poorly explored sector of the Andes, where no structural studies and scarce geochronological determinations have been carried out. This paper focuses on two isolated volcanic sections hosted at the main Andes, in which field evidence indicates a common synextensional origin. Geochronological data establish that this volcanic event occurred diachronously at the innermost sector of the evolving fold and thrust belt, during middle to late Miocene times. Therefore, the event was briefly coeval and postdated compressive tectonics recognized in the deformational front and correlative to the last phase of pluton emplacement of the North Patagonian Batholith. Local-scale topographic swath profiles performed in this work reveal negative topographic anomalies where normal faults were recognized. Moreover, regional swath profiles show not only a conspicuous depressed zone at the hinterland zone, where the studied sections are located, but also anomalously high altitudes at the foreland zone. In addition, calculated orogenic volumes increase in this sector of the fold and thrust belt, which agrees with recent shortening estimations. These topographic along-strike variations, in association with late Miocene extension following the main compressive stage in the area, are explained by a supercritical stage of the orogenic wedge that would have led to focused extension at the innermost sector of the fold and thrust belt. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Rojas Vera E.A.,University of Buenos Aires | Selles D.,AURUM Consultores | Folguera A.,University of Buenos Aires | Gimenez M.,CONICET | And 6 more authors.
Tectonophysics | Year: 2014

This work analyzes through field, geophysical, geochemical and geochronological data, a particular setting of the Southern Andes in which an extensional system is flanking the mountain front. This setting is represented by the Loncopué Trough, whose origin is discussed for this part of the Andes. This work reconstructs 3-dimensionally the structure of this basin and its evolution through time, since Jurassic times as a series of isolated depocenters, to Late Cretaceous-Eocene times with the construction of a positive relief that subsequently was relaxed through two extensional stages during the late Oligocene-early Miocene and the Pliocene-Quaternary respectively. The last episode of extension is characterized by an initial stage with a series of caldera-collapses in the latest Pliocene-early Quaternary. This passed to a stage of development of a broad basaltic plateau in pre- and inter-glacial times, circumscribed with new radiometric data to the Pleistocene. Quaternary products in northern and central Loncopué Trough have chemical relations that are intermediate between the arc front and the southern Loncopué Trough volcanic rocks studied in previous works. Thus, retroarc eruptions would be part of an extended arc configuration that goes from typical arc series in the northern part of the trough to within-plate series in the south. Low elastic thicknesses computed from gravity data in this work correlate with the area of retroarc volcanic activity. Magnetic data have allowed determining the Curie isotherm, showing two areas of relatively abnormal heat flow, one along the Loncopué Trough itself and the other in the foreland zone. This scenario is discussed through three main hypotheses: an occurrence linked to a slab-steepening after a shallow subduction in the area; co-seismic crustal stretching linked to giant earthquakes in the subduction zone; and, finally slab-tearing associated with asthenospheric upwelling. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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