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Rock Island, IL, United States

Leitner H.,University of California at Los Angeles | Strunk C.,Augustana College at Rock Island
Annals of the Association of American Geographers | Year: 2014

Challenging representations of immigrants as victims of the biopolitical power of the state, and of citizenship as reinforcing such repression, this article interrogates how immigrant advocacy has been contesting the proliferation of exclusionary immigration policies in the United States and in the course of this pushing against the boundaries of formal liberal democratic citizenship. Using Washington, DC, as a case study, and deploying the concept of insurgent citizenship to theorize these actions, we examine the polyvalence of immigrant advocacy, paying particular attention to the spaces and scales of struggle and flexibly networked mobilizations. Insurgent citizenship creates new political spaces that exceed the national territorial framing of liberal democratic citizenship, that focus on civic action rather than simply relying on the electoral process, and that lay claim to new values and criteria for citizenship. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Horwath Burnham J.,University of Washington | Horwath Burnham J.,Augustana College at Rock Island | Sletten R.S.,University of Washington
Global Biogeochemical Cycles | Year: 2010

The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the high Arctic is generally poorly constrained. Because of periglacial processes such as frost churning and sequestration in frozen soils, a substantial amount of SOC is typically not inventoried. This study provides a detailed study of SOC content by depth in 55 soil pits in a high Arctic ecosystem of northwest Greenland. Sampling sites spanned ecosystems from mires to polar deserts, from sea level to the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and across various periglacial features. The amount of SOC in the various ecosystems was mapped using a correlation of SOC with high-resolution ASTER satellite imagery and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) classes from the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map. On the basis of this correlation, the total carbon was extrapolated to greater areas of the high Arctic. Our study found the amount of SOC in the high Arctic has typically been grossly underestimated, remarkably by the greatest amount in the most barren environments of the polar desert. We estimate that the high Arctic contains about 12 Pg SOC, a factor of over 5 times greater the most cited values previously reported. Since our estimate was only assessed in seasonally frozen ground, additional carbon frozen in the permafrost is likely present and potentially available in the event of permafrost thawing due to warming of the Arctic. © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Heine R.A.,Augustana College at Rock Island | Pinter N.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2012

This study used stream gauge records to assess the impact of levees on flood levels, providing an empirical test of theoretical and model predictions of the effects on local flood response. Focusing upon a study area in Illinois and Iowa for which levee records were available, we identified 203 gauges with≥50years hydrological record, including 15 gauges where a levee was constructed during the period of record. At these sites, step-change analysis utilizing regression residuals tested levee-related stage changes and levels of significance and quantified the magnitudes of stage changes. Despite large differences in stream sizes, levee alignments, and degree of floodplain constriction, the post-levee rating-curve adjustments showed consistent signatures. For all the study sites, stages for below bankfull (non-flood) conditions were unaffected by levee construction. For above bankfull (flood) conditions, stages at sites downstream of their associated levees also were statistically indistinguishable before versus after levee construction. However, at all sites upstream of levees or within leveed reaches, stages increased for above bankfull conditions. These increases were abrupt, statistically significant, and generally large in magnitude - ranging up to 2.3m (Wabash River at Mt. Carmel, IL). Stage increases began when discharge increased above bankfull flow and generally increased in magnitude with discharge until the associated levee(s) were overtopped. Detailed site assessments and supplementary data available from some sites helped document the dominant mechanisms by which levees can increase flood levels. Levee construction reduces the area of the floodplain open to storage of flood waters and reduces the width of the floodplain open to conveyance of flood flow. Floodplain conveyance often is underestimated or ignored, but Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements analysed here confirm previous studies that up to 70% or more of the total discharge during large floods (~3% chance flood) can move over the floodplain. Upstream of levees and levee-related floodplain constriction, backwater effects reduce flow velocities relative to pre-levee conditions and, thus, increase stages for a given discharge. The empirical results here confirm a variety of theoretical predictions of levee effects but suggest that many one-dimensional model-based predictions of levee-related stage changes may underestimate actual levee impacts. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.. Source

Mull M.S.,Augustana College at Rock Island | Evans E.M.,University of Michigan
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology | Year: 2010

The ability to both identify and explain others' intentional acts is fundamental for successful social interaction. In two cross-sectional studies, we investigated 3- to 9-year-olds' (n=148) understanding of the folk concept of intentionality, using three types of intentionality measures. The relationship between this type of reasoning and false belief and interpretive mind understanding was also examined. Judgment of the appropriateness of an explanation was based on adult responses (n=20). Overall, the results indicated that the ability to both identify and appropriately explain a range of intentional acts does not fully emerge until 7. years of age or later. The pattern of explanations revealed the gradual development of a folk concept of intentionality. Preschool- and early school-age children focused on the protagonists' desires and actions, whereas 8- and 9-year-olds and adults were more likely to reference the protagonists' awareness and skills. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ANTARCTIC EARTH SCIENCES | Award Amount: 190.37K | Year: 2013

Intellectual Merit:
This proposal requests support for research on Early Jurassic vertebrate fauna of the Beardmore Glacier region of Antarctica. The project will support preparation and systematic and paleobiological research on four Antarctic dinosaurs, including two new species, collected in the Central Transantarctic Mountains. With the new material Cryolophosaurus will become one of the most complete Early Jurassic theropods known, and thus has the potential to become a keystone taxon for resolving the debated early evolutionary history of theropod dinosaurs, the group that gave rise to birds. Two new dinosaur specimens include a nearly complete articulated skeleton of a juvenile sauropodomorph, and the articulated hip region of another small individual. Both appear to be new taxa. The dinosaurs from the Hanson Formation represent some of the highest paleolatitude vertebrates known from the Jurassic. The PIs will generate CT datasets for Cryolophosaurus and the more complete new sauropodomorph species to mine for phylogenetic trait information, and to investigate their comparative neuroanatomy and feeding behavior. Histological datasets will be generated from multiple skeletal elements for all four Mt. Kirkpatrick taxa to understand patterns of growth in different clades of polar dinosaurs and compare them to relatives from lower paleolatitudes. This paleohistological study of a relatively diverse sample of sauropodomorph taxa from Antarctica may contribute to determining whether and how these dinosaurs responded to contemporary climatic extremes.

Broader impacts:
The PIs have established a successful undergraduate training program as part of previous research. Summer interns from Augustana are trained at the Field Museum in specimen preparation, curation, molding/casting, and histological sampling. They also participate in existing Field Museum REU programs, including a course on phylogenetic systematics. Four undergraduate internships and student research projects will be supported through this proposal. The PIs will develop a traveling exhibit on Antarctic Mesozoic paleontology that they estimate will be seen by 2.5 million people over the five-year tour.

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