Tabernik H.E.,Augusta University
Behavioral Sciences and the Law | Year: 2016
In Foucha v. Louisiana (1992), the United States Supreme Court ruled that individuals adjudicated not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) could not remain in a forensic hospital if they were no longer mentally ill and dangerous. Since this decision, a variety of important questions have arisen related to the insanity defense and what should happen to insanity acquittees post-adjudication. This article provides an analysis of clinical issues confronting forensic examiners when psychosis as a result of substance abuse is the underlying condition supporting an insanity defense. To accomplish this analysis, this article provides the reader with a review of literature showing the complex relationship between psychosis and substance abuse. Second, this article investigates how substance-induced psychosis may impact both insanity opinions and subsequent conditional release decisions. Third, the article aims to provide research-driven information to assist clinicians in conducting conditional release evaluations. Finally, this paper provides a model for evaluating dangerousness in the context of conditional release evaluations. Given the substantial comorbidity between substance abuse and psychosis, it is critical for researchers and clinicians to consider potential effects of substance abuse when evaluating insanity acquittees for conditional release, especially as substance use relates to future dangerousness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Matthews A.M.,Augusta University
Journal of ECT | Year: 2016
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to survey the media landscape to determine whether visual depictions of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are becoming more or less medically accurate in the new millennium. METHOD: English-language film and television shows depicting ECT were analyzed for patient demographics, administrator roles, indication, consent, anesthesia, paralytics, bite block, lead placement, electroencephalogram, and outcome. RESULTS: Thirty-nine ECT scenes were viewed, and just 3 included all 5 essential tools of modern ECT: anesthesia, paralytic, electrodes, electroencephalogram, and a bite block. CONCLUSIONS: Media depictions of ECT do not reflect current practice. Too often, ECT is portrayed as a torture technique rather than an evidenced-based therapy, and even in a therapeutic setting, it is too often shown with outdated techniques. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved
Rao S.S.C.,Augusta University |
Bharucha A.E.,Rochester College |
Chiarioni G.,University of Verona |
Chiarioni G.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
And 4 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2016
This report defines criteria and reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of the following common anorectal disorders: fecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain, and functional defecation disorders. FI is defined as the recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material for at least 3 months. The clinical features of FI are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Anorectal manometry and imaging are useful for evaluating anal and pelvic floor structure and function. Education, antidiarrheals, and biofeedback therapy are the mainstay of management; surgery may be useful in refractory cases. Functional anorectal pain syndromes are defined by clinical features and categorized into 3 subtypes. In proctalgia fugax, the pain is typically fleeting and lasts for seconds to minutes. In levator ani syndrome and unspecified anorectal pain, the pain lasts more than 30 minutes, but in levator ani syndrome there is puborectalis tenderness. Functional defecation disorders are defined by ≥2 symptoms of chronic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, and with ≥2 features of impaired evacuation, that is, abnormal evacuation pattern on manometry, abnormal balloon expulsion test, or impaired rectal evacuation by imaging. It includes 2 subtypes: dyssynergic defecation and inadequate defecatory propulsion. Pelvic floor biofeedback therapy is effective for treating levator ani syndrome and defecatory disorders. © 2016 by the AGA Institute.
Dennis Hall C.,University of Florida |
Panda S.S.,Augusta University
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry | Year: 2016
The utility of 1. H-benzotriazole as a halogen surrogate in acylation, aroylation, and alkylation reactions is reviewed together with its application to the synthesis of heterocycles, peptides, isopeptides, cyclic peptides, peptidomimetics, and peptide conjugates. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Researchers at the University of Georgia have created a nanostructure that could provide a path toward using solar energy more efficiently in the production of fuel gases. Writing in the journal Catalysis Today, the scientists say nanostructures fabricated from a core of iron oxide and coated with a shell of titanium dioxide absorb more solar energy than single-layer nanostructures. The findings may eventually lead to advances in a number of applications-ranging from energy production to electronics-according to Kun Yao, a lecturer and cleanroom manager in the UGA College of Engineering who served as lead investigator on the project. "In recent years, researchers looking for a sustainable solution to the world's long-term energy needs have been exploring methods to use solar energy more efficiently," Yao says. "One promising strategy is to design and fabricate highly efficient photocatalysts that use solar illumination to facilitate chemical reactions that produce a fuel, reduce pollution or both." In its paper, the research team said nanostructures fabricated from titanium dioxide, or TiO , have been investigated extensively for solar water splitting, carbon dioxide conversion and environmental decontamination. The compound's non-toxicity, low cost, and high stability make it particularly suitable for those applications. While titanium dioxide is an effective and widely available photocatalyst, it has a major drawback: It only absorbs ultraviolet light. This means TiO can only use approximately 5 percent of the sun's energy, Yao explains. To improve the efficiency of the nanostructure, the researchers created a core of iron oxide and then applied a shell of titanium dioxide. Iron oxide is able to absorb visible light, the largest section of the solar spectrum. The researchers tested their composite nanostructure by attempting to convert carbon dioxide into fuel gases. Using only ambient sunlight, their core-shell nanostructure proved nearly five times as efficient at converting carbon dioxide and water into hydrogen gas than a nanostructure composed of titanium dioxide alone. Their nanostructure also demonstrated improved performance in the conversion of carbon dioxide into water vapor, methane, and methanol. They report the conversion occurred within a few hours — and the longer the nanostructure was exposed to sunlight, the more fuel gases it produced. While the results of the study are promising, Yao believes there are several strategies that may make the core-shell nanostructure even more efficient. "Scientists working in the field of nanostructures are looking at processes that may not have a direct application for 10 or 15 years, so in a sense we are all pioneers," Yao says. "But we should always work to improve our understanding of the field and lay the groundwork for future generations." Co-authors on the study included Pradip Basnet and Yiping Zhao of the UGA department of physics and astronomy, Henry Sessions and George K. Larsen of the Savannah River National Laboratory, and Simona E. Hunyadi Murph of the Savannah River National Laboratory and the then-Georgia Regents University (now Augusta University). Source: University of Georgia