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St. Gabriel, LA, United States

Ehrenhauser F.S.,Audubon Sugar Institute
Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds | Year: 2015

The nomenclature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their derivatives has undergone substantial changes since the beginning of the 20th century. The International Union of Applied and Pure Chemistry (IUPAC) has issued rules and recommendations on chemical nomenclature including organic compounds like PAH since 1957. This article presents an overview of the latest version of IUPAC nomenclature for PAH and their derivatives, detailing current changes. In addition, an overview of older nomenclature systems and commonly used, PAH specific terms aiding nomenclature is given. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Cao S.,Audubon Sugar Institute | Aita G.M.,Audubon Sugar Institute
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Tween 80, Tween 20, PEG 4000 or PEG 6000 was used in combination with ammonium hydroxide for the pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. Pretreatment was carried out by mixing sugarcane bagasse, ammonium hydroxide (28% v/v solution), and water at a ratio of 1:0.5:20, adding 3% (w/w) surfactant based on the weight of dry biomass, and heating the mixture to 160 °C for 1. h. Fibers were hydrolyzed using two concentrations of commercially available enzymes, Spezyme CP and Novozyme 188. The results indicated that PEG 4000 and Tween 80 gave the highest cellulose digestibilities (62%, 66%) and ethanol yields (73%, 69%) as compared to the use of only dilute ammonia (38%, 42%) or water (27%, 26%) as catalysts, respectively. The enhanced digestibilities of non-ionic surfactant-dilute ammonia treated biomass can be attributed to delignification and reduction of cellulose crystallinity as confirmed by FTIR, TGA and XRD analysis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

White J.E.,Audubon Sugar Institute | White J.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Catallo W.J.,Louisiana State University | Legendre B.L.,Audubon Sugar Institute
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2011

Biomass pyrolysis is a fundamental thermochemical conversion process that is of both industrial and ecological importance. From designing and operating industrial biomass conversion systems to modeling the spread of wildfires, an understanding of solid state pyrolysis kinetics is imperative. A critical review of kinetic models and mathematical approximations currently employed in solid state thermal analysis is provided. Isoconversional and model-fitting methods for estimating kinetic parameters are comparatively evaluated. The thermal decomposition of biomass proceeds via a very complex set of competitive and concurrent reactions and thus the exact mechanism for biomass pyrolysis remains a mystery. The pernicious persistence of substantial variations in kinetic rate data for solids irrespective of the kinetic model employed has exposed serious divisions within the thermal analysis community and also caused the broader scientific and industrial community to question the relevancy and applicability of all kinetic data obtained from heterogeneous reactions. Many factors can influence the kinetic parameters, including process conditions, heat and mass transfer limitations, physical and chemical heterogeneity of the sample, and systematic errors. An analysis of thermal decomposition data obtained from two agricultural residues, nutshells and sugarcane bagasse, reveals the inherent difficulty and risks involved in modeling heterogeneous reaction systems. © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. Source

Kim M.,Audubon Sugar Institute | Day D.F.,Audubon Sugar Institute
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times, but can be processed for bio-ethanol using the same equipment. Juice of energy cane contains 9.8% fermentable sugars and that of sweet sorghum, 11.8%. Chemical composition of sugar cane bagasse was determined to be 42% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin, and that of energy cane was 43% cellulose, 24% hemicellulose, and 22% lignin. Sweet sorghum was 45% cellulose, 27% hemicellulose, and 21% lignin. Theoretical ethanol yields would be 3,609 kg per ha from sugar cane, 12,938 kg per ha from energy cane, and 5,804 kg per ha from sweet sorghum. © 2010 Society for Industrial Microbiology. Source

Lohrey C.,Audubon Sugar Institute | Lohrey C.,Louisiana State University | Kochergin V.,Audubon Sugar Institute | Kochergin V.,Louisiana State University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars™. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20%ds (dry solids) or 30%ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E R (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO 2 utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530ha algae farm can produce 5.8millionLofbiodiesel/yr and reduce CO 2 emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels. © 2012. Source

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