Stacy N.I.,University of Florida |
Stacy N.I.,University of Miami |
Field C.L.,The Marine Mammal Center |
Staggs L.,GulfWorld Marine Park |
And 8 more authors.
Endangered Species Research | Year: 2017
During the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in 2010, 319 live oiled sea turtles were rescued and admitted to rehabilitation centers for decontamination and veterinary care. Most turtles were small, surface-pelagic juveniles that were collected from oiled habitat distant from shore. Serial hematology, plasma biochemistry, and blood gas analyses were reviewed to characterize abnormalities relative to observed degree of oiling. Clinicopathological abnormalities upon admission indicated acute, nonspecific metabolic and osmoregulatory derangements that were attributable to a combination of events including stress, exertion, physical exhaustion, and dehydration related to oiling, capture, and transport. Specific toxicological effects reported in other taxa were not observed. Initial point-of-care blood data from one rescue center were evaluated using clinical assessment of physiological status for all turtles of all species with available data for pH, pCO2, sodium, and potassium. In addition, a prognostic model that was specifically developed for cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles Lepidochelys kempii was applied to oiled Kemp's ridley turtles from one center. Thirty-six percent of oiled turtles were identified as physio - logically de ranged based on a clinical assessment of their physiological status, and 25% of oiled Kemp's ridley sea turtles exceeded the mortality risk threshold of the prognostic model. These results indicate that the physiological derangements in these animals were relatively severe and clinically relevant. Based on observations during the DWH spill, adverse physiological effects in sea turtles may be an important consequence of stress, exertion, physical exhaustion, and de - hydration secondary to oiling, capture, and transport. © Outside the USA the US Government 2017.
News Article | March 11, 2017
The Audubon Aquarium in New Orleans recently welcomed a new guest, a minor sea otter from Monterey, California, which was rescued. According to a statement from the Audubon Nature Institute, the female sea otter is 18 months old and arrived at the institution on Wednesday, March 8, in the evening. She has got a new companion, an 8-year old sea otter named Clara who is a present resident of Audubon's 25,000 gallon sea otter habitation. "We are thrilled to be able to provide a new companion for Clara. Having the ability to care for this rescued otter, and support southern sea otter conservation with our partners," said Beth Firchau, Director of Animal Husbandry, Audubon Aquarium of the Americas. The Monterey Bay Aquarium's Sea Otter Research and Conservation (SORAC) program found the abandoned baby sea otter when she was only a day old in September 2015. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Officials decided that the baby otter would not survive without having a home after their multiple failed attempts to send her back into the ocean, where she belongs. The baby otter traveled for almost a whole day just to arrive at her new home in New Orleans. The sea otter has a favorite toy, a red ball which she brought along to entertain herself during the long journey. No the baby otter does not have a name yet but will soon. Audubon Aquarium is arranging an online poll to offer visitors an opportunity to name the baby otter, which can be found on its official website. There are three name options that people can choose from - Ruby, Charley and Pearl. All the three names are related to renowned author and Monterey County resident John Steinbeck. The chosen name will be declared on the aquarium's official Facebook page and website on March 16. SORAC program is continuously researching and trying to rescue vulnerable otters of southern sea since 1984. It saves, treats, raises, releases or takes care of otters and also arranges scientific research. Although the prime focus of this program is southern sea otters but SORAC authority planned to study sea otters of Russia, Alaska and also southern California in association with the U.S. Geological Survey and several other scientists. Audubon is famous for its hard work and incredible care given by human to the sea otters, said Firchau. She also added that their collaboration with SORAS is very important for them to do their work properly. To get the chance of naming the otter, visit Audubon's Facebook page or Official website. To see the adorable otter playing with her ball, check out the video below. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
Hinton M.G.,Tulane University |
Bendelow A.,Tulane University |
Lantz S.,Tulane University |
Wey T.W.,University of California at Davis |
And 3 more authors.
Zoo Biology | Year: 2013
Many species of flamingo are endangered in the wild but common in zoos, where successful captive breeding programs are a management priority. Unlike their counterparts in the wild, captive flamingo individuals are easy to mark and follow, facilitating longitudinal data collection on social dynamics that may affect reproduction. We studied a captive group of American Flamingos at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA to document patterns of aggression between individuals during the onset of breeding. We used a social network approach to test whether overall aggression would be higher during courtship or following establishment of pair bonds. Aggression was higher following pair bond establishment than during courtship, suggesting that individuals in our study population may compete more intensely for resources such as nesting sites than for mates. We also found that males were more aggressive than females during all stages of the study period and that there was a positive relationship between age and aggression in males during the pair-bond stage. We discuss these findings in light of management practices for captive populations of flamingos and general patterns of aggression in social animals. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PubMed | Audubon Nature Institute, Tulane University, Mexico State University and University of California at Davis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zoo biology | Year: 2016
Because zoos typically house animals for extended periods of time, longitudinal studies can play an important role in evaluating and optimizing animal care and management. For example, information on patterns of aggression and mating behavior across years can be used to monitor well-being, assess response to changes to group composition, and promote successful reproduction. Here, we report on patterns of aggression and pair bonding by American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) at the Audubon Zoo, New Orleans USA across 4 years (2012-2015), a period that included a simultaneous introduction and removal of individuals in 2014. At the population level, overall rates and social network indices of aggressive interactions were relatively stable over the study period, without a strong signal of the 2014 replacement event. At the individual level, flamingos exhibited a high degree of within-individual consistency in levels of aggression initiated (W=0.530, P<0.001), and received (W=0.369, P=0.042). In terms of pair bonds, females re-paired with the same individuals across years more frequently (between 58% and 100% from year to year) than they switched mates, and no bonds were established between pre-existing and introduced individuals. These findings indicate a high degree of stability in aggression and pair bonding behavior in this population of captive flamingos, at both the population and individual level. Longitudinal studies such as this one provide an opportunity to better our understanding of flamingos and other long-lived, group-living animals along with their management needs, especially in terms of maintaining social cohesion in captivity and improving captive breeding programs.
Mercado J.A.,Audubon Nature Institute |
Wirtu G.,Audubon Center for Research of Endangered Species |
Beaufrre H.,Louisiana State University |
Lydick D.,Audubon Nature Institute
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2010
Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement is a common procedure during eye examinations in birds. Differences in the IOP between avian species have been reported, which suggests the need to establish species-specific reference ranges. To determine IOP values of captive black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), we obtained IOP readings with the use of a rebound tonometer by using two established calibration settings (dog and horse). No difference was seen in the IOP between the left and right eye when the horse setting was used; however, a difference was present when using the dog setting. No significant difference between the IOP of male and female penguins was seen in both eyes when the dog or horse setting was used. Rebound tonometry appears to be a safe and repeatable method to obtain IOP values in black-footed penguins. © 2010 by the Association of Avian Veterinarians.
Rowe M.F.,Indiana State University |
Bakken G.S.,Indiana State University |
Ratliff J.J.,Audubon Nature Institute |
Langman V.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2013
Gigantic size presents both opportunities and challenges in thermoregulation. Allometric scaling relationships suggest that gigantic animals have difficulty dissipating metabolic heat. Large body size permits the maintenance of fairly constant core body temperatures in ectothermic animals by means of gigantothermy. Conversely, gigantothermy combined with endothermic metabolic rate and activity likely results in heat production rates that exceed heat loss rates. In tropical environments, it has been suggested that a substantial rate of heat storage might result in a potentially lethal rise in core body temperature in both elephants and endothermic dinosaurs. However, the behavioral choice of nocturnal activity might reduce heat storage. We sought to test the hypothesis that there is a functionally significant relationship between heat storage and locomotion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and model the thermoregulatory constraints on activity in elephants and a similarly sized migratory dinosaur, Edmontosaurus. Pre- and post-exercise (N=37 trials) measurements of core body temperature and skin temperature, using thermography were made in two adult female Asian elephants at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA, USA. Over ambient air temperatures ranging from 8 to 34.5°C, when elephants exercised in full sun, ∼56 to 100% of active metabolic heat production was stored in core body tissues. We estimate that during nocturnal activity, in the absence of solar radiation, between 5 and 64% of metabolic heat production would be stored in core tissues. Potentially lethal rates of heat storage in active elephants and Edmontosaurus could be behaviorally regulated by nocturnal activity. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Ferreira C.M.,Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute |
Field C.L.,Audubon Nature Institute
Journal of Aquatic Animal Health | Year: 2010
There is generally a dearth of information involving reference ranges of health variables for numerous elasmobranch species commonly housed in zoos and aquaria; thus, extrapolation from a few existing elasmobranch studies is commonly used to assess health parameters in these species. The primary objective of this study was to establish baseline complete blood cell count and plasma chemistry reference ranges for captive individuals of the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus, an elasmobranch that is widely displayed in zoos and aquaria worldwide. This study was conducted using 18 adult cownose rays currently housed at the Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration in Connecticut. Median blood and plasma values were 550 cells/μL for total white blood cell count; 511,250 cells/μL for total red blood cell count; 31% for packed cell volume; 5.8 g/L for total solids; 2.85 g/dL for total protein; 33 units (U)/L for aspartate aminotransferase; 34 U/L for alkaline phosphatase; 0.2 mg/dL for total bilirubin; 1,155 mg/dL for urea nitrogen; 0.1 mg/dL for creatinine; 0.6 g/dL for albumin; 2.15 g/dL for globulins; 144 mg/dL for cholesterol; 157 mg/dL for triglycerides; 45 mg/dL for glucose; 16.9 mg/dL for calcium; 5.8 mg/dL for phosphorus; 294 mmol/L for sodium; 1.55 mmol/L for potassium; and 270 mmol/L for chloride. Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, amylase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were below the detectable limits for several samples. In nine samples, alanine aminotransferase levels were below the instrument range (<4 U/L). No significant differences between sexes were detected. The reference ranges reported in this study should provide a useful guide for routine health monitoring of captive cownose rays. © Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2010.
Clarke III E.O.,North Carolina State University |
Clarke III E.O.,Audubon Nature Institute |
Dorn B.,North Carolina Aquarium at Pine Knoll Shores |
Boone A.,North Carolina State University |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013
An adult yellow stingray (Urobatis jamaicensis) from a touch-tank exhibit developed a large abscess on the dorsal aspect of the calvarium and swollen soft tissue surrounding the left spiracle. A large amount of fluid exudate was drained from the abscess. Mycobacterium chelonae was diagnosed by cytology of the exudate and by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The animal was euthanized and disseminated mycobacteriosis was confirmed with histology. © 2013 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.
PubMed | Audubon Nature Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of avian medicine and surgery | Year: 2010
Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement is a common procedure during eye examinations in birds. Differences in the IOP between avian species have been reported, which suggests the need to establish species-specific reference ranges. To determine IOP values of captive black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), we obtained IOP readings with the use of a rebound tonometer by using two established calibration settings (dog and horse). No difference was seen in the IOP between the left and right eye when the horse setting was used; however, a difference was present when using the dog setting. No significant difference between the IOP of male and female penguins was seen in both eyes when the dog or horse setting was used. Rebound tonometry appears to be a safe and repeatable method to obtain IOP values in black-footed penguins.
PubMed | University of Wisconsin - Madison and Audubon Nature Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice | Year: 2015
Fish surgical procedures are commonplace in aquaria, zoos, laboratory facilities, and pet clinical practice. To incorporate fish surgery into a clinical setting, an understanding of anatomic differences between mammals and fish, bath anesthetics, and recirculating anesthesia techniques must be developed; a system or different size systems to accommodate anesthesia and surgery of particular species of concern at an institution or practice constructed; and familiar mammalian surgical principles applied with some adaptations. Common surgical procedures in fish include coeliotomy for intracoelomic mass removal, reproductive procedures, gastrointestinal foreign body removal, radiotransmitter placement, and integumentary mass excision.