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Filgas R.,Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics | Filgas R.,Czech Technical University | Greiner J.,Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics | Schady P.,Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics | And 25 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Aims. Using high-quality, broad-band afterglow data for GRB 091029, we test the validity of the forward-shock model for gamma-ray burst afterglows. Methods. We used multi-wavelength (NIR to X-ray) follow-up observations obtained with the GROND, BOOTES-3/YA and Stardome optical ground-based telescopes, and the UVOT and the XRT onboard the Swift satellite. The resulting data of excellent accuracy allow us to construct a multi-wavelength light curve with relative photometric errors as low as 1%, as well as the well-sampled spectral energy distribution covering 5 decades in energy. Results. The optical/NIR and the X-ray light curves of the afterglow of GRB 091029 are almost totally decoupled. The X-ray light curve shows a shallow rise with a peak at ∼7 ks and a decay slope of α ∼ 1.2 afterwards, while the optical/NIR light curve shows a much steeper early rise with a peak around 400 s, followed by a shallow decay with temporal index of α ∼ 0.6, a bump and a steepening of the decay afterwards. The optical/NIR spectral index decreases gradually by over 0.3 before this bump, and then slowly increases again, while the X-ray spectral index remains constant throughout the observations. Conclusions. To explain the decoupled light curves in the X-ray and optical/NIR domains, a two-component outflow is proposed. Several models are tested, including continuous energy injection, components with different electron energy indices and components in two different stages of spectral evolution. Only the last model can explain both the decoupled light curves with asynchronous peaks and the peculiar SED evolution. However, this model has so many unknown free parameters that we are unable to reliably confirm or disprove its validity, making the afterglow of GRB 091029 difficult to explain in the framework of the simplest fireball model. This conclusion provides evidence that a scenario beyond the simplistic assumptions is needed to be able to model the growing number of well-sampled afterglow light curves. © ESO, 2012.

Freeman M.,University of Auckland | Philpott L.C.,University of British Columbia | Abe F.,Nagoya University | Albrow M.D.,University of Canterbury | And 21 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

Recently Sumi et al. reported evidence for a large population of planetary-mass objects (PMOs) that are either unbound or orbit host stars in orbits ≤10 AU. Their result was deduced from the statistical distribution of durations of gravitational microlensing events observed by the MOA collaboration during 2006 and 2007. Here we study the feasibility of measuring the mass of an individual PMO through microlensing by examining a particular event, MOA-2011-BLG-274. This event was unusual as the duration was short, the magnification high, the source-size effect large, and the angular Einstein radius small. Also, it was intensively monitored from widely separated locations under clear skies at low air masses. Choi et al. concluded that the lens of the event may have been a PMO but they did not attempt a measurement of its mass. We report here a re-analysis of the event using re-reduced data. We confirm the results of Choi et al. and attempt a measurement of the mass and distance of the lens using the terrestrial parallax effect. Evidence for terrestrial parallax is found at a 3σ level of confidence. The best fit to the data yields the mass and distance of the lens as 0.80 ± 0.30 MJ and 0.80 ± 0.25 kpc respectively. We exclude a host star to the lens out to a separation ∼40 AU. Drawing on our analysis of MOA-2011-BLG-274 we propose observational strategies for future microlensing surveys to yield sharper results on PMOs including those down to super-Earth mass. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Janczak J.,Ohio State University | Fukui A.,Nagoya University | Dong S.,Ohio State University | Monard L.A.G.,Bronberg Observatory | And 65 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

We report the detection of sub-Saturn-mass planet MOA-2008-BLG-310Lb and argue that it is the strongest candidate yet for a bulge planet. Deviations from the single-lens fit are smoothed out by finite-source effects and therefore are not immediately apparent from the light curve. Nevertheless, we find that a model in which the primary has a planetary companion is favored over the single-lens model by Δχ2 ∼ 880 for an additional 3 degrees of freedom. Detailed analysis yields a planet/star mass ratio q = (3.3 ± 0.3) × 10-4 and an angular separation between the planet and star within 10% of the angular Einstein radius. The small angular Einstein radius, θE = 0.155 ± 0.011 mas, constrains the distance to the lens to be DL >6.0kpc if it is a star (M L >0.08 M). This is the only microlensing exoplanet host discovered so far that must be in the bulge if it is a star. By analyzing VLT NACO adaptive optics images taken near the baseline of the event, we detect additional blended light that is aligned to within 130mas of the lensed source. This light is plausibly from the lens, but could also be due to a companion to the lens or source, or possibly an unassociated star. If the blended light is indeed due to the lens, we can estimate the mass of the lens, ML = 0.67 0.14 M ⊙, planet mass m = 74 ± 17 M ⊕, and projected separation between the planet and host, 1.25 ± 0.10AU, putting it right on the "snow line." If not, then the planet has lower mass, is closer to its host and is colder. To distinguish among these possibilities on reasonable timescales would require obtaining Hubble Space Telescope images almost immediately, before the source-lens relative motion of causes them to separate substantially. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.

Zub M.,University of Heidelberg | Zub M.,University of Zielona Gora | Cassan A.,University of Heidelberg | Cassan A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 58 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Aims. We present a detailed analysis of OGLE 2004-BLG-482, a relatively high-magnification single-lens microlensing event that exhibits clear extended-source effects. These events are relatively rare, but they potentially contain unique information on the stellar atmosphere properties of their source star, as shown in this study. Methods. Our dense photometric coverage of the overall light curve and a proper microlensing modelling allow us to derive measurements of the OGLE 2004-BLG-482source star's linear limb-darkening coefficients in three bands, including standard Johnson-Cousins I and R, as well as in a broad clear filter. In particular, we discuss in detail the problems of multi-band and multi-site modelling on the expected precision of our results. We also obtained high-resolution UVES spectra as part of a ToO programme at ESO VLT, from which we derive the source star's precise fundamental parameters. Results. From the high-resolution UVES spectra, we find that OGLE 2004-BLG-482's source star is a red giant of MK type a bit later than M3, with Teff = 3667 ± 150 K, log g = 2.1 ± 1.0 and an assumed solar metallicity. This is confirmed by an OGLE calibrated colour-magnitude diagram. We then obtain from a detailed microlensing modelling of the light curve linear limb-darkening coefficients that we compare to model-atmosphere predictions available in the literature, and find a very good agreement for the I and R bands. In addition, we perform a similar analysis using an alternative description of limb darkening based on a principal component analysis of ATLAS limb-darkening profiles, and also find a very good agreement between measurements and model predictions. © ESO, 2010.

Sumi T.,Nagoya University | Bennett D.P.,University of Notre Dame | Bond I.A.,Massey University | Udalski A.,University of Warsaw | And 106 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

We present the discovery of a Neptune-mass planet OGLE-2007-BLG-368Lb with a planet-star mass ratio of q = [9.5 2.1] × 10-5 via gravitational microlensing. The planetary deviation was detected in real-time thanks to the high cadence of the Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics survey, real-time light-curve monitoring and intensive follow-up observations. A Bayesian analysis returns the stellar mass and distance at Ml = 0.64+0.21 -0.26 M· and Dl = 5.9 +0.9 -1.4 kpc, respectively, so the mass and separation of the planet are Mp = 20+7 -8 M ⊕ and a = 3.3+1.4 -0.8AU, respectively. This discovery adds another cold Neptune-mass planet to the planetary sample discovered by microlensing, which now comprises four cold Neptune/super-Earths, five gas giant planets, and another sub-Saturn mass planet whose nature is unclear. The discovery of these 10 cold exoplanets by the microlensing method implies that the mass ratio function of cold exoplanets scales as dN pl/dlog qαq -0.70.2 with a 95% confidence level upper limit of n < -0.35 (where dN pl/dlog qαqn ). As microlensing is most sensitive to planets beyond the snow-line, this implies that Neptune-mass planets are at least three times more common than Jupiters in this region at the 95% confidence level. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

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