Auckland City Hospital Auckland

Auckland, New Zealand

Auckland City Hospital Auckland

Auckland, New Zealand
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Visvanathan K.,University of Melbourne | Dusheiko G.,Royal Free Hospital London | Giles M.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Wong M.-L.,Box Hill Hospital | And 18 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2016

Hepatitis B during pregnancy presents unique management issues for both the mother and fetus. These include the lack of a current cohesive strategy for treatment and follow-up of mothers and their babies; the uncertain risk of postpartum HBV flares; the lack of randomised trial data on the safety and efficacy of antiviral treatment in pregnancy; the lack of head-tohead studies comparing different antivirals in pregnancy; and the lack of epidemiologic information regarding infection across different populations globally. This position paper provides a comprehensive review of the management of women with HBV infection prior to conception, throughout each stage of pregnancy and postpartum, as well as recommendations and clinical approaches for the follow-up of children born to infected mothers, based on available evidence in the literature and recommendations from international experts. Prevention of perinatal transmission is an important component of global efforts to reduce the burden of chronic HBV since vertical transmission is responsible for most of the chronic infection worldwide.


PubMed | University of New South Wales, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gut | Year: 2016

Hepatitis B during pregnancy presents unique management issues for both the mother and fetus. These include the lack of a current cohesive strategy for treatment and follow-up of mothers and their babies; the uncertain risk of postpartum HBV flares; the lack of randomised trial data on the safety and efficacy of antiviral treatment in pregnancy; the lack of head-to-head studies comparing different antivirals in pregnancy; and the lack of epidemiologic information regarding infection across different populations globally. This position paper provides a comprehensive review of the management of women with HBV infection prior to conception, throughout each stage of pregnancy and postpartum, as well as recommendations and clinical approaches for the follow-up of children born to infected mothers, based on available evidence in the literature and recommendations from international experts. Prevention of perinatal transmission is an important component of global efforts to reduce the burden of chronic HBV since vertical transmission is responsible for most of the chronic infection worldwide.


Yang P.,University of Auckland | Pavlovic D.,University of Auckland | Waldvogel H.,University of Auckland | Dragunow M.,University of Auckland | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Parkinson's Disease | Year: 2015

Background: String vessels are collapsed basement membrane without endothelium and have no function in circulation. String vessel formation contributes to vascular degeneration in Alzheimer disease. By comparing to age-matched control cases we have recently reported endothelial degeneration in brain capillaries of human Parkinson disease (PD). Objective: Current study evaluated changes of basement membrane of capillaries, string vessel formation and their association with astrocytes, blood-brain-barrier integrity and neuronal degeneration in PD. Methods: Brain tissue from human cases of PD and age-matched controls was used. Immunohistochemical staining for collagen IV,GFAP, NeuN, tyrosine hydroxylase, fibrinogen and Factor VIIIwas evaluated by image analysis in the substantia nigra, caudate nucleus and middle frontal gyrus. Results: While the basement-membrane-associated vessel density was similar between the two groups, the density of string vessels was significantly increased in the PD cases, particularly in the substantia nigra. Neuronal degeneration was found in all brain regions. Astrocytes and fibrinogen were increased in the caudate nuclei of PD cases compared with control cases. Conclusions: Endothelial degeneration and preservation of basement membrane result in an increase of string vessel formation in PD. The data may suggest a possible role for cerebral hypoperfusion in the neuronal degeneration characteristic of PD, which needs further investigation. Elevated astrocytosis in the caudate nucleus of PD cases could be associated with disruption of the blood-brain barrier in this brain region. © 2015 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Auckland and Auckland City Hospital Auckland
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Parkinson's disease | Year: 2015

String vessels are collapsed basement membrane without endothelium and have no function in circulation. String vessel formation contributes to vascular degeneration in Alzheimer disease. By comparing to age-matched control cases we have recently reported endothelial degeneration in brain capillaries of human Parkinson disease (PD).Current study evaluated changes of basement membrane of capillaries, string vessel formation and their association with astrocytes, blood-brain-barrier integrity and neuronal degeneration in PD.Brain tissue from human cases of PD and age-matched controls was used. Immunohistochemical staining for collagen IV, GFAP, NeuN, tyrosine hydroxylase, fibrinogen and Factor VIII was evaluated by image analysis in the substantia nigra, caudate nucleus and middle frontal gyrus.While the basement-membrane-associated vessel density was similar between the two groups, the density of string vessels was significantly increased in the PD cases, particularly in the substantia nigra. Neuronal degeneration was found in all brain regions. Astrocytes and fibrinogen were increased in the caudate nuclei of PD cases compared with control cases.Endothelial degeneration and preservation of basement membrane result in an increase of string vessel formation in PD. The data may suggest a possible role for cerebral hypoperfusion in the neuronal degeneration characteristic of PD, which needs further investigation. Elevated astrocytosis in the caudate nucleus of PD cases could be associated with disruption of the blood-brain barrier in this brain region.


PubMed | Middlemore Hospital Auckland and Auckland City Hospital Auckland
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Respirology case reports | Year: 2015

A 77-year-old woman who used her spa pool at least twice a day to relieve pain from osteoarthritis, developed progressive breathlessness, impaired pulmonary function, and radiographic changes consistent with hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like lung disease. M ycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) was cultured from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Transbronchial biopsies revealed non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Sputum and spa pool water cultured M ycobacterium phocaicum but not MAC. She stopped using the spa pool and was treated with oral prednisone, which led to symptomatic, pulmonary function, and radiographic improvement. This is the first case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like granulomatous lung disease associated with exposure to M .phocaicum in spa pool water.


PubMed | Auckland City Hospital Auckland
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of extra-corporeal technology | Year: 2011

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used for nearly 40 years for treating life threatening respiratory failure. Two historic randomized trials in adults, conducted using outdated techniques, did not show a survival advantage. However, recent case series and a large randomized controlled trial have demonstrated good outcomes from ECMO in adults. The CESAR trial, a large, multicenter, randomized trial comparing consideration for ECMO versus conventional therapy for treating severe acute respiratory failure in adults, has recently been published. The results and implications of this controversial trial are analyzed here, and a discussion of the problems inherent in assessing complex interventions in critically ill patients is provided. Additionally, the outcomes from ECMO from pandemic H1N1 influenza in Australia and New Zealand during the winter of 2009 are reviewed. Despite the inherent limitations of the methodology of the CESAR trial, the results support the use of ECMO in appropriately selected patients with life threatening acute respiratory failure. Treatments such as ECMO are extremely difficult to assess by randomized controlled trials. Observational data demonstrate excellent results from ECMO for treating patients with life threatening respiratory failure caused by pandemic H1N1 influenza, and have greatly influenced practice in Australia and New Zealand. Used as part of a multi-modal approach to treating acute respiratory failure in adults, ECMO is an important, potentially life saving, technique.

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