Bunkyō-ku, Japan
Bunkyō-ku, Japan

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Watanabe D.,Japanese National Research Institute of Brewing | Ota T.,Atto Corporation | Nitta F.,Atto Corporation | Akao T.,Japanese National Research Institute of Brewing | Shimoi H.,Japanese National Research Institute of Brewing
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2011

In small-scale sake brewing tests, progression of ethanol fermentation is examined by monitoring carbon dioxide emission using the Fermograph, an automated multi-channel gas monitor instrument. The Fermograph system enables automatic measurements of fermentation profiles with high accuracy, reproducibility, and resolution, and facilitates comprehensive and quantitative sake fermentation kinetic analyses. © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.


Uchino M.,Matrix Research Inc | Kojima H.,Matrix Research Inc | Kojima H.,ATTO Corporation | Wada K.,Matrix Research Inc | And 8 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2010

Background: In breast cancer cells, the metastatic cell state is strongly correlated to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the CD44+/CD24-stem cell phenotype. However, the MCF-7 cell line, which has a luminal epithelial-like phenotype and lacks a CD44+/CD24-subpopulation, has rare cell populations with higher Matrigel invasive ability. Thus, what are the potentially important differences between invasive and non-invasive breast cancer cells, and are the differences related to EMT or CD44/CD24 expression?Methods: Throughout the sequential selection process using Matrigel, we obtained MCF-7-14 cells of opposite migratory and invasive capabilities from MCF-7 cells. Comparative analysis of epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was performed between parental MCF-7, selected MCF-7-14, and aggressive mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, using microarray expression profiles of these cells, we selected differentially expressed genes for their invasive potential, and performed pathway and network analysis to identify a set of interesting genes, which were evaluated by RT-PCR, flow cytometry or function-blocking antibody treatment.Results: MCF-7-14 cells had enhanced migratory and invasive ability compared with MCF-7 cells. Although MCF-7-14 cells, similar to MCF-7 cells, expressed E-cadherin but neither vimentin nor fibronectin, β-catenin was expressed not only on the cell membrane but also in the nucleus. Furthermore, using gene expression profiles of MCF-7, MCF-7-14 and MDA-MB-231 cells, we demonstrated that MCF-7-14 cells have alterations in signaling pathways regulating cell migration and identified a set of genes (PIK3R1, SOCS2, BMP7, CD44 and CD24). Interestingly, MCF-7-14 and its invasive clone CL6 cells displayed increased CD44 expression and downregulated CD24 expression compared with MCF-7 cells. Anti-CD44 antibody treatment significantly decreased cell migration and invasion in both MCF-7-14 and MCF-7-14 CL6 cells as well as MDA-MB-231 cells.Conclusions: MCF-7-14 cells are a novel model for breast cancer metastasis without requiring constitutive EMT and are categorized as a "metastable phenotype", which can be distinguished from both epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The alterations and characteristics of MCF-7-14 cells, especially nuclear β-catenin and CD44 upregulation, may characterize invasive cell populations in breast cancer. © 2010 Uchino et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Kwon H.,Hokkaido University | Enomoto T.,ATTO Corporation | Shimogawara M.,ATTO Corporation | Yasuda K.,Hokkaido University | And 3 more authors.
BioTechniques | Year: 2010

Bioluminescence imaging reveals the long-term dynamics of individual gene expression in a single cell. However, methods for simultaneously imaging multiple gene expression patterns have been unknown to date. Here, we constructed a dual-path optical luminescence imaging system using a two-color reporter system and could simultaneously track two gene expression patterns for several days in a single cell.


Kim B.,Sejong University | Kim D.,Sejong University | Han D.,Sejong University | Lee N.-I.,Atto Co.
Materials and Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2011

A new model of plasma etch processes is presented. The model was constructed by applying the backpropagation neural network and genetic algorithm (GA) to wavelet filtered data. During a plasma etching of oxide films, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) data were collected, and the etch responses measured include an etch rate, a selectivity, and a nonuniformity. Discrete and continuous wavelets were applied to filter OES data. Dimensionality of filtered OES data was then reduced by applying the principal component analysis with three variances of 100, 99, and 98%. For each response or each data variance, three types of model were constructed. In other words, a total of 54 models were built for comparison. For the discrete wavelet-filtered data, the optimized model errors are 252Å/min, 3.1, 0.51%, identified at 98, 99, and 99% for the etch rate, profile angle, and nonuniformity, respectively. For the continuous wavelet-filtered data, they are 329Å/min, 3.83, and 0.31%. Therefore, for the etch rate and selectivity, the discrete wavelet data yielded improved prediction. For the non-uniformity, the continuous wavelet data produced much better prediction than the discrete wavelet data. Compared to earlier models, improved prediction of the proposed model was demonstrated for all but the etch profile angle data. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Wang Y.,University of Tokyo | Kubota H.,ATTO Corporation | Yamada N.,ATTO Corporation | Irie T.,ATTO Corporation | Akiyama H.,University of Tokyo
Photochemistry and Photobiology | Year: 2011

We measured quantitative spectra of firefly (Photinus pyralis) bioluminescence in the presence of Zn2+ and other bivalent metal ions to investigate the effects of these metal ions on luciferin-luciferase reaction. We studied the dependence of the quantum yield and spectrum on quantity and kind of bivalent metal ions. Adding various amounts of Mg 2+, Mn2+ and Ca2+ produced virtually no change in the quantum yields or the spectra of bioluminescence. In contrast, increasing amounts of ions such as Zn2+ and Cd2+ decreased quantum yields and changed the bioluminescence color from yellow-green to red. Quantitative analysis showed that the sensitivities of the quantum yield and color to various metal ions were in the order of Hg2+>Zn 2+, Cd2+>Ni2+, Co2+, Fe 2+≫Mg2+, Mn2+, Ca2+. We propose that the changes in quantum yield and spectrum caused by the metal ions are due to their effect on luciferase that surrounds oxyluciferin during its radioactive decay. We also found that having more metal ions accelerated bioluminescence reactions. The sensitivity of the reaction rate had no correlation with those of the quantum yield and spectrum. Spectra of firefly (Photinus pyralis) bioluminescence were quantitatively measured and analyzed in the presence of Zn2+ and other bivalent metal ions. Adding various amounts of Mg 2+, Mn2+ and Ca2+ produced virtually no change in the quantum yields or the spectra, while increasing concentrations of Zn 2+ and some other ions decreased quantum yields and induced color shift. The sensitivities of the quantum yield and spectrum to metal ions were put as Hg2+>Zn2+, Cd2+>Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+≫Mg2+, Mn2+, Ca 2+. The sensitivity of reaction rate had no correlation with those of the quantum yield and spectrum. © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.


Funahashi S.,Nagoya University | Okazaki Y.,Nagoya University | Ito D.,Nagoya University | Asakawa A.,ATTO Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Asbestos exposure is considered a social burden bycausing meso-thelioma. Despite the use of synthetic materials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are similar in dimension to asbestos and produce mesothelioma in animals. The role of inflammatory cells in mesothelial carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the differences in inflammatory cell responses following exposure to these fibrous materials using a luminometer and L-012 (8-amino-5-chloro-7-phenylpyrido[3,4-dlpyridazine-1,4-(2H,3H) dione) to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS). Rat peripheral blood or RAW264.7 cells were used to assess the effects on neutro-phils and macrophages, respectively. Crocidolite and amosite induced significant ROS generation by neutrophils with a peak at 10 min, whereas that of chrysotile was ∼25% of the crocidolite/ amosite response. MWCNTs with different diameters (∼15, 50, 115 and 145 nm) and different carcinogenicity did not induce significant ROS in peripheral blood. However, the MWCNTs induced a comparable amount of ROS in RAW264.7 cells to that following asbestos treatment. The peaks for MWCNTs (0.5-1.5 h) were observed earlier than those for asbestos (1-5 h). Apocynin and superoxide dismutase significantly inhibited ROS generation for each fiber, suggesting an involvement of NADPH oxidase and superoxide. Thus, asbestos and MWCNTs induce different oxida-tive responses in inflammatory cells, indicating the importance of mesothelial cell evaluation for carcinogenesis.


Yamada Y.,Hokkaido University | Nishide S.-Y.,Hokkaido University | Nakajima Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Watanabe T.,ATTO Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2013

A firefly luciferase reporter enabled us to monitor promoter activity in vivo as well as ex vivo; however, this requires a sufficient supply of the substrate luciferin and specific monitoring devices. To overcome these disadvantages, we developed transgenic rats carrying a secreted enzyme Cypridina luciferase (CLuc) reporter under the promoter of clock gene Per2 (Per2-CLuc). Per2-CLuc activity in serially sampled blood from freely moving rats exhibited robust circadian rhythms with a peak at early morning. The Per2-CLuc bioluminescence could be quantified even with approximately 100 pl of plasma. Plasma Per2-CLuc rhythms were phase reversed, and the level was reduced by restricting food access for 2 h during the light phase, suggesting that the plasma Per2-CLuc rhythms reflect the phase of peripheral clocks entrained to feeding cues as well as fuel metabolism. Fasting for 2 days did not alter the circadian Per2-CLuc rhythms in rats, suggesting that feeding per se did not affect the circadian Per2-CLuc rhythms. Tissue-specific Per2-CLuc rhythms were observed in culture medium of peripheral tissues. The Per2-CLuc reporter is a powerful tool to access gene expression in vivo as well as ex vivo with ordinary laboratory equipment. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Patent
Atto Co. | Date: 2010-07-28

Provided is a method of manufacturing a semiconductor device. In the method, after a thin liner is formed on a substrate on which a lower interconnection is formed, a silicon source is supplied to form a silicide layer under the liner by a reaction between the silicon source and the lower interconnection, and the silicide layer is nitrided and an etch stop layer is formed. Therefore, the lower interconnection is prevented from making contact with the silicon source, variations of the surface resistance of the lower interconnection can be prevented, and thus high-speed devices can be fabricated.


Provided are a deposition apparatus and a method of manufacturing a semiconductor device. In the method, a reaction chamber provided with a gaseous source supply unit and a liquid source supply unit is prepared, and an etch stop layer is formed on a substrate by using a gaseous source. Then, an interlayer insulation layer is formed on the etch stop layer by using a vaporized liquid source and a vaporized dopant source. In this way, the etch stop layer and the interlayer insulation layer are formed in-situ in the same reaction chamber.


PubMed | Nagoya University and ATTO Corporation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition | Year: 2015

Asbestos exposure is considered a social burden by causing mesothelioma. Despite the use of synthetic materials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are similar in dimension to asbestos and produce mesothelioma in animals. The role of inflammatory cells in mesothelial carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the differences in inflammatory cell responses following exposure to these fibrous materials using a luminometer and L-012 (8-amino-5-chloro-7-phenylpyrido[3,4-d]pyridazine-1,4-(2H,3H) dione) to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS). Rat peripheral blood or RAW264.7 cells were used to assess the effects on neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. Crocidolite and amosite induced significant ROS generation by neutrophils with a peak at 10min, whereas that of chrysotile was ~25% of the crocidolite/amosite response. MWCNTs with different diameters (~15, 50, 115 and 145nm) and different carcinogenicity did not induce significant ROS in peripheral blood. However, the MWCNTs induced a comparable amount of ROS in RAW264.7 cells to that following asbestos treatment. The peaks for MWCNTs (0.5-1.5h) were observed earlier than those for asbestos (1-5h). Apocynin and superoxide dismutase significantly inhibited ROS generation for each fiber, suggesting an involvement of NADPH oxidase and superoxide. Thus, asbestos and MWCNTs induce different oxidative responses in inflammatory cells, indicating the importance of mesothelial cell evaluation for carcinogenesis.

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