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Trento, Italy

Amichetti M.,ATreP | Vidali C.,Science di Radioterapia
International Journal of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2012

Several large prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated excellent long-term outcomes after breast conservative treatment with radiation in invasive breast cancer. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiotherapy (RT) is an accepted management strategy for patients with DCIS. Adding radiation treatment after conservative surgery enables to reduce, without any significant risks, the rate of local recurrence (LR) by approximately 50% in retrospective and randomized clinical trials. As about 50% of LRs are invasive and have a negative psychological impact, minimizing recurrence is important. Local and local-regional recurrences after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation can be salvaged with high rates of survival and freedom from distant metastases. © 2012 Maurizio Amichetti and Cristiana Vidali.

Widesott L.,ATreP | Lomax A.J.,Paul Scherrer Institute | Schwarz M.,ATreP
Medical Physics | Year: 2012

Purpose: To assess the quality of dose distributions in real clinical cases for different dimensions of scanned proton pencil beams. The distance between spots (i.e., the grid of delivery) is optimized for each dimension of the pencil beam. Methods: The authors vary the of the initial Gaussian size of the spot, from σx = σy = 3 mm to σx = σy = 8 mm, to evaluate the impact of the proton beam size on the quality of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans. The distance between spots, Δx and Δy, is optimized on the spot plane, ranging from 4 to 12 mm (i.e., each spot size is coupled with the best spot grid resolution). In our Hyperion treatment planning system (TPS), constrained optimization is applied with respect to the organs at risk (OARs), i.e., the optimization tries to satisfy the dose objectives in the planning target volume (PTV) as long as all planning objectives for the OARs are met. Three-field plans for a nasopharynx case, two-field plans for a prostate case, and two-field plans for a malignant pleural mesothelioma case are considered in our analysis. Results: For the head and neck tumor, the best grids (i.e., distance between spots) are 5, 4, 6, 6, and 8 mm for σ = 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 mm, respectively. σ ≤ 5 mm is required for tumor volumes with low dose and σ ≤ 4 mm for tumor volumes with high dose. For the prostate patient, the best grid is 4, 4, 5, 5, and 5 mm for σ = 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 mm, respectively. Beams with σ = 3 mm did not satisfy our first clinical requirement that 95% of the prescribed dose is delivered to more than 95% of prostate and proximal seminal vesicles PTV. Our second clinical requirement, to cover the distal seminal vesicles PTV, is satisfied for beams as wide as σ = 6 mm. For the mesothelioma case, the low dose PTV prescription is well respected for all values of σ, while there is loss of high dose PTV coverage for σ > 5 mm. The best grids have a spacing of 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12 mm for σ = 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The maximum acceptable proton pencil beam depends on the volume treated, the protocol of delivery, and optimization of the plan. For the clinical cases, protocol and optimization used in this analysis, acceptable σs are ≤4 mm for the head and neck tumor, ≤3 mm for the prostate tumor and ≤6 mm for the malignant pleural mesothelioma. One can apply the same procedure used in this analysis when given a class of patients, a and a clinical protocol to determine the optimal grid spacing. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

Amichetti M.,ATreP | Amelio D.,ATreP
Cancers | Year: 2011

Despite the use of more effective multimodal treatments in high-grade glioma (HGG), the outcome of patients affected by this disease is still dismal and recurrence is a very common event. Many therapeutic approaches, alone or combined (surgery, drugs, targeted agents, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, supportive therapy), are available in the clinical armamentarium so far. The attitude of physicians is increasingly interventionist, but recurrent HGG still remains a very difficult scenario to be treated. Radiotherapy with different re-irradiation techniques is increasingly proposed as a therapeutic option with interesting results, even though the resulting duration of response is usually quite short. Most lesions re-recur locally, with inadequate identification and targeting of viable tumor being the most important cause of failure. Prognosis is affected by many patient-, tumor-,and treatment-associated prognostic factors. Radiotherapy is delivered with many advanced modalities: 3D-CRT, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy, radiosurgery, and brachitherapy with or without chemotherapy administration. In order to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of re-irradiation in this setting, we reviewed the PubMed and MEDLINE databases restricting the search to original reports published from January 1990 to June 2011. The search resulted in a total of 155 reports: 78 of them covering 2,688 patients treated with different irradiation modalities overall fulfilled the entry criteria. Radiation therapy demonstrated to be an acceptable option in recurrent HGG with good response rates and acceptable toxicity. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Amichetti M.,ATreP | Amelio D.,ATreP | Cianchetti M.,ATreP | Maurizi Enrici R.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Minniti G.,S. Andrea Hospital
Neurosurgical Review | Year: 2010

Chondrosarcoma (CSA) of the skull base (SB) is an uncommon, slowly growing, neoplasm comprising approximately 0.1% of all intracranial tumors and 6% of SB lesions. Even though its growth is slow, CSA is a potentially lethal tumor. The therapeutic approach to CSA of the SB is still controversial and clinical experience is limited because of the relative rarity of this tumor. The use of proton therapy (PT) after maximal surgery is widely accepted, but there are no controlled studies demonstrating the need of PT and its superiority in comparison to radiotherapy with photons. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature published during the period between January 1980 and June 2008 on data regarding irradiation of CSA of the SB with PT and a series of inclusion criteria. During August 2008, two independent reviewers (M.A. and D.A.), by applying the key words "skull base", " chondrosarcoma", and "proton therapy" selected those studies from the PubMed database in which a minimum of ten patients received palliative, radical, or postoperative irradiation with protons and which furnished a minimum of 24 months of follow-up. Forty nine reports were retrieved. There were no prospective trials (randomized or nonrandomized) but just nine uncontrolled single-arm studies for PT mainly related to advanced and frequently incompletely resected tumors. According to the inclusion criteria, only four articles, reporting the most recent updated results of the publishing institution, were included in the analysis providing clinical outcomes for 254 patients in total. Therapeutic approach to CSA of the SB has traditionally relied on surgical control. Radiation therapy has demonstrated to be a valuable modality for local control in the postoperative setting or in advanced/inoperable cases treated with definitive intent. The use of PT following maximal surgical resection shows a very high probability of medium- and long-term cure with a relatively low risk of significant complications. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Minniti G.,Neuromed Institute | Minniti G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Scaringi C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Amelio D.,ATreP | Maurizi Enrici R.,University of Rome La Sapienza
International Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Radiotherapy (RT) is often employed in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions in order to prevent tumour regrowth and normalize elevated GH and IGF-I levels. It achieves tumour control and hormone normalization up to 90 and 70 of patients at 10-15 years. Despite the excellent tumour control, conventional RT is associated with a potential risk of developing late toxicity, especially hypopituitarism, and its role in the management of patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas remains a matter of debate. Stereotactic techniques have been developed with the aim to deliver more localized irradiation and minimize the long-term consequences of treatment, while improving its efficacy. Stereotactic irradiation can be given in a single dose as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or in multiple doses as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). We have reviewed the recent published literature on stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques. Copyright © 2012 G. Minniti et al.

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