Atoka Cranberries Inc.

Manseau, Canada

Atoka Cranberries Inc.

Manseau, Canada

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Cote J.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Caillet S.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Dussault D.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Sylvain J.-F.,Atoka Cranberries Inc. | Lacroix M.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier
Food Research International | Year: 2011

The effects of the industrial juice process on the ability of neutralized cranberry samples and extracts (polar, apolar and anthocyanins) to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin (ERV), Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933, E. coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes HPB. 2812, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 were investigated. The juice process appeared to have a general enhancing effect on the antibacterial properties of cranberry polar and anthocyanin extracts. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (1.80-7.0 μg phenol/well) were obtained when S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, and ERV were exposed to the juice concentrate. The growth of P. aeruginosa, L. monocytogenes, E. coli ATCC, and E. coli O157:H7 was not inhibited by the juice concentrate, but did show sensitivity (maximal tolerated concentrations of 0.007-0.4 μg phenol/well). The lowest MICs (22.6-90.5 μg phenol/well) for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, and ERV were observed when they were exposed to the cranberry anthocyanin extract obtained from cranberry pomace. The results also showed a negative effect of the juice process on the antibacterial properties of the cranberry apolar extracts: the one obtained from frozen cranberries was most efficient against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimirium (MIC of 45.50 μg phenol/well). The tested bacteria showed the greatest resistance toward the cranberry extracts obtained from the mash and the macerated and depectinized mash. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Caillet S.,University of Québec | Cote J.,University of Québec | Sylvain J.-F.,Atoka Cranberries Inc. | Lacroix M.,University of Québec
Food Control | Year: 2012

The antimicrobial effect of thirty HPLC fractions of different polarity obtained from two cranberry juices and three extracts (anthocyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds) isolated from frozen cranberries and pomace was investigated against seven bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin (ERV), Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes HPB 2812, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442; Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the maximal tolerated concentration (MTC) of each fraction were determined for each pathogen using a 96-well microtiter plate method. The results, reported in μg phenol/mL, indicated that all the bacterial strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were selectively inhibited by the cranberry phenolic compounds. All pathogens were very sensitive to at least seven fractions with MTCs below 2 μg phenol/mL and five fractions with MICs below 10 μg phenol/mL. In addition, four fractions rich in apolar phenolic compounds were very efficient against all bacteria with MICs below 10 μg phenol/mL, and twenty five fractions completely inhibited microbial growth with MICs below100 μg phenol/well. L. monocytogenes exhibited the highest sensitivity with twelve very active fractions (MTCs and MICs below 1 and 10 μg phenol/mL, respectively) while E. coli O157H7 was the least sensitive to twenty seven fractions (with the highest MICs). Also, it appears that the technological process to manufacture cranberry juice can reduce the antimicrobial activity of phenolic fractions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Cote J.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Caillet S.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Doyon G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Dussault D.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2011

The antimicrobial effect of cranberry juice and of three cranberry extracts (water-soluble (E1) and apolar phenolic compounds (E2), and anthocyanins (E3)) was investigated against seven bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin (ERV), Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes HPB 2812, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213). Each cranberry sample was analyzed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the maximal tolerated concentration (MTC) at neutral pH. The results, reported in μg phenol/mL, indicated that all the bacterial strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were selectively inhibited by the cranberry phenolic compounds. The extract rich in water-soluble phenolic compounds caused the most important growth inhibitions. The bacteria ERV, and to a lesser degree, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli ATCC 25922, were the most sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of extract E1. The growth of P. aeruginosa and E. coli ATCC was also affected by the presence of the anthocyanin-rich cranberry extract E3, although the observed antibacterial effect was not as important as with extract E1. In general, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium were the most resistant to the antibacterial activity of the cranberry extracts. Within 30 min of exposure with pure neutralized cranberry juice, L. monocytogenes and ERV were completely inactivated. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Caillet S.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Lorenzo G.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Cote J.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Doyon G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Cancer chemopreventive properties were evaluated in HPLC fractions of different polarity obtained from two cranberry juices and three extracts isolated from frozen cranberries and pomace containing anthocyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds, respectively. Compounds with close polarities were collected in order to obtain between three and four fractions from each juice or extract. Cranberry fractions were screened for their ability to induce the phase II xenobiotic detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR). The results showed that there was no cytotoxicity against the cells used in the test. All samples stimulated the quinone reductase activity except the highest concentrations of the less polar fraction of anthocyanin-rich extract from pomace, which inhibited the QR activity. The QR induction for all samples varied with the concentration and there was an optimal concentration for which the QR induction was maximal. The technological process to manufacture cranberry juice had little influence on the overall QR inducer potencies of cranberry fractions, whereas the ability of phenols in fractions to stimulate the QR activity has been reduced significantly (P≤0.05) during the technological process. Among all samples, phenolic compounds of eight fractions presented a maximum QR induction greater than 100 II(QR)/mg phenol. The phenolic compounds of the most polar fraction (rich in phenolic acids) and those of the less polar fraction (rich in proanthocyanidins) showed stronger induction than those observed with phenols from intermediate fractions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Vu K.D.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Carlettini H.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Bouvet J.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Cote J.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The effect of cranberry extracts and juices during cranberry juice processing on the antiproliferative properties against colon cancer cells was investigated. Two colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and LS-513 were treated with different concentrations of cranberry phenolic extracts from fruits, puree, depectinised puree and pomace and different concentration of three juices (raw, filtered and concentrated juices). The phenolic extracts consisted of water-soluble phenolic compounds, apolar phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. These phenolic extracts and juices were tested against two cell lines at pH 2.5 (natural juice pH) and at pH 7.0 (physiological pH). All cranberry extracts and juices could inhibit the growth of both cell lines with the IC 50 values (the concentration of phenolic content required to inhibit 50% the growth of cancer cells) varied from 3.8 to 179.2 μg gallic acid equivalent/ml. It was found that three types of extracts from fruit at pH 7.0 were the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HT-29 cell line. Extracts containing anthocyanins from fruit and from pomace were the most and the least efficient, respectively, in inhibiting the growth of both cancer cell lines. Further, three juices at natural pH (pH 2.5) were more effective at inhibiting the growth of two cell lines as compared to juices at pH 7.0. Concentrated juice at both pH values was the most effective at growth inhibition of two cancer cell lines compared to two other juices. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Caillet S.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Cote J.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Doyon G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Sylvain J.-F.,Atoka Cranberries Inc. | Lacroix M.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier
Food Research International | Year: 2011

Cancer chemopreventive properties were evaluated in cranberries and cranberry products (mash, depectinized mash, pomace, raw juice, clarified juice and juice concentrate). Three extracts isolated from frozen cranberries and cranberry solids (mash, depectinized mash and pomace) containing anthocyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds were tested. Cranberry juices and extracts were screened for their ability to induce the phase II xenobiotic detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR). The results showed that there was no cytotoxicity against the cells used in the test. All samples stimulated quinone reductase activity except the highest concentrations of the anthocyanin-rich extract of pomace, which inhibited QR activity. Also, the results showed that the QR induction for all samples varied with concentration and that there was an optimal concentration for which the QR induction was maximal. Although the three cranberry extracts were good QR inducers, our results indicated that the phenols present in aqueous extract showed QR inductions which were more important than those obtained with phenols present in solvent extracts. Also, the ability of phenols to stimulate the QR activity has been reduced continuously and significantly (P≤ 0.05) during the technological process. Especially, it appears that conditions of the evaporation to obtain a juice concentrate exerted a significant effect (P≤ 0.05) on inducer potencies of bioactive molecules. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Cote J.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Caillet S.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Doyon G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Dussault D.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | And 4 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2011

The effects of the industrial juice process on the antioxidant capacities of cranberry samples and of three phenolic extracts (polar phenolics (E1), apolar phenolics (E2) and anthocyanins (E3)) adjusted at pH 2.5 and 7.0 were investigated. The free radical-scavenging (FRS) and the lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPI) activities of each sample and extract, were studied using a N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine discoloration test and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, respectively. The FRS and the LPI results, expressed in mM Trolox® equivalent (TE)/mg phenol and mg TE/mL/mg phenol, respectively, showed a negative effect of the juice process steps on E1. The E2 and E3 extracts were also affected by the process but not as much. The milling step increased the FRS capacity of E2 and E3 extracts, but decreased their LPI capacity. The evaporation of the juice did not have a significant effect on the FRS capacity, but lowered the LPI capacity. Before and after each step of the juice process, the FRS capacity of the cranberry extracts was greater than the LPI capacity. The results were consistent in classifying the FRS capacity of the extracts in the following order of polarity: E1 > E3 > E2; and their total phenolic (TP) content in the following order: E3 > E2 > E1. In general, the neutralization of the pH of the extracts did not significantly influence the changes observed during the juice process in the FRS and LPI capacity, except for E3 for which a decrease in the LPI capacity was observed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Cote J.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Caillet S.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Doyon G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Sylvain J.,Atoka Cranberries Inc. | Lacroix M.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2010

Cranberries are healthy fruit that contribute color, flavor, nutritional value, and functionality. They are one of only three fruits native to America. Over the past decade, public interest for the North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has been rising with reports of their potential health benefits linked to the numerous phytochemicals present in the fruit the anthocyanins, the flavonols, the flavan-3-ols, the proanthocyanidins, and the phenolic acid derivatives. The presence of these phytochemicals appears to be responsible for the cranberry property of preventing many diseases and infections, including cardiovascular diseases, various cancers, and infections involving the urinary tract, dental health, and Helicobacter pylori-induced stomach ulcers and cancers. Recent years have seen important breakthroughs in our understanding of the mechanisms through which these compounds exert their beneficial biological effects, yet these remain to be scientifically substantiated. In this paper these characteristics, as well as the antioxidant, radical scavenging, antibacterial, antimutagen, and anticarcinogen properties of cranberry major bioactive compounds are explained. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Cote J.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Caillet S.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Doyon G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Sylvain J.-F.,Atoka Cranberries Inc. | Lacroix M.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2010

There is a growing public interest for the North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) as a functional food because of the potential health benefits linked to phytochemical compounds present in the fruit-the anthocyanin pigments, responsible for its brilliant red color, and other secondary plant metabolites (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acid derivatives). Isolation of these phenolic compounds and flavonoids from a sample matrix is a prerequisite to any comprehensive analysis scheme. By far the most widely employed analytical technique for the characterization of these compounds has been high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet-visible(UV/Vis) and mass spectrometer(MS) detection. This review covers the cranberry major bioactive compounds, the extraction and purification methods, and the analytical conditions for HPLC used to characterize them. Extraction, chromatographic separation and detection strategies, analyte determinations, and applications in HPLC are discussed and the information regarding methods of specific cranberry analyte analyses has been summarized in tabular form to provide a means of rapid access to information pertinent to the reader. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Caillet S.,University of Québec | Cote J.,University of Québec | Doyon G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Sylvain J.-F.,Atoka Cranberries Inc. | Lacroix M.,University of Québec
Food Research International | Year: 2011

The antioxidant capacities of cranberry juice and three extracts isolated from frozen cranberries containing anthocyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds, were evaluated at pH 2.5 and 7, respectively. The free radical-scavenging (FRS) and the lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPI) activities of each samples, and extracts, were studied using the N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) decoloration test and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, respectively. The cranberry phenols displayed good free radical-scavenging properties, but were less efficient at inhibiting the peroxidation of lipids. Of all the samples tested, the water-soluble phenolic compounds showed the greatest free radical-scavenging (68.2. mmol TE/mg phenol) and antioxidant (13.4. mmol TE phenol) activities. The polarity of the phenols, the pH of the medium and the juice process had a great influence on the antioxidant activities. The phenols isolated from cranberries with an aqueous solvent have greater antioxidant properties than those extracted with an organic solvent mixture. The antioxidant activity of the cranberry samples adjusted at pH 2.5 was greater than those adjusted at pH 7. Compared to the cranberry extracts, the juice exhibited a much lower antioxidant activity, especially when compared with the extract containing water-soluble compounds which the extraction conditions were similar to those used to obtain the juice. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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