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Lopez A.,Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region | Lopez A.,University of Valencia | Lopez A.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia | Lopez A.,Atmospheric Pesticide Research Group of Valencia | And 15 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2017

A risk assessment strategy based on the quantitative target analysis and semi-quantitative retrospective screening determination of pesticides in PM10 has been developed. The proposed methodology was applied to 345 real samples from nine stations of a Mediterranean area in Spain, and the risk was assessed for adult, children and infants. Forty pesticides were detected with average concentrations ranging from 8 to 30,000 pg m− 3. Each station showed its specific pesticide profile, which is linked to the different types of crops around each station. For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ), was < 1 for all pesticides. The cumulative exposure for organophosphates, neonicotinoids, benzimidazoles, carbamates, micro-organism and triazoles pesticides (HI, Hazard Index) were < 1 for the three groups of populations assessed. For infants, the cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as possible and potential carcinogens were lower than 1.0 E-06, except for carbendazim and hexythiazox. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Coscolla C.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia FISABIO | Coscolla C.,Atmospheric Pesticide Research Group of Valencia | Lopez A.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia FISABIO | Lopez A.,University of Valencia | And 8 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2017

Outdoor air samples collected during the pesticide agricultural application period (spring and summer) from a rural community in the Centre Region (France) were analyzed to investigate temporal variation of atmospheric pesticide levels (2006-2013) and human inhalation exposure in adults, children and infants.The most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides (trifluralin, pendimethalin), fungicides (chlorothalonil) and insecticides (lindane and α-endosulfan). The three currently-used pesticides most frequently detected presented concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1128.38ngm-3; 0.13 to 117.32ngm-3 and 0.16 to 25.80ngm-3 for chlorothalonil, pendimethalin and trifluralin, respectively.The estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ), for adults, children and infants, was <. 1 for all measured pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus and chloroacetamide pesticides, was estimated using the Relative Potency Factor (RPF) and Hazard Index (HI) as metrics, which was indicated that no risk was observed. The cancer risk classified as likely or possibly carcinogen was estimated to be <. 8.93 E. -05 in infants, for the detected pesticides. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Borras E.,Atmospheric Pesticide Research Group of Valencia | Tortajada-Genaro L.A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Rodenas M.,Atmospheric Pesticide Research Group of Valencia | Vera T.,Atmospheric Pesticide Research Group of Valencia | And 5 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

The phosphorothioate structure is highly present in several organophosphorus pesticides. However, there is insufficient information about its degradation process after the release to the atmosphere and the secondary pollutants formed. Herein, the atmospheric reaction of chlorpyrifos-methyl (o,o-dimethyl o-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate), is described for semi-urban or rural locations. The photo-oxidation under low NO. x conditions (5-55. ppbV) was reproduced in a large outdoor simulation chamber, observing a rapid degradation (lifetime. <. 3.5. h). The formation of gaseous products and particulate matter (aerosol yield 2-8%) was monitored. The chemical composition of minor products (gaseous and particulate) was studied, identifying 15 multi-oxygenated derivatives. The most abundant products were ring-retaining molecules such as o,o-dimethyl o-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate, dimethyl 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl phosphate, o-methyl o-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) hydrogen phosphorothioate, 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl dihydrogen phosphate, 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol, and 3,5,6-trichloropyridine-2,4-diol. An atmospheric degradation mechanism has been proposed based on an oxidation started with OH-nucleophilic attack to P. S bond. The results have been extrapolated to other organothiophosphorus molecules, such as malathion, parathion, diazinon and methidathion, among many others, to estimate their photo-oxidative degradation and the expected products. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Coscolla C.,Public Health Laboratory of Valencia FISABIO | Coscolla C.,Atmospheric Pesticide Research Group of Valencia | Munoz A.,Atmospheric Pesticide Research Group of Valencia | Borras E.,Atmospheric Pesticide Research Group of Valencia | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

This work presents first data on the particle size distribution of 16 pesticides currently used in Mediterranean agriculture in the atmosphere. Particulate matter air samples were collected using a cascade impactor distributed into four size fractions in a rural site of Valencia Region, during July to September in 2012 and from May to July in 2013. A total of 16 pesticides were detected, including six fungicides, seven insecticides and three herbicides. The total concentrations in the particulate phase (TSP: Total Suspended Particulate) ranged from 3.5 to 383.1pgm-3. Most of the pesticides (such as carbendazim, tebuconazole, chlorpyrifos-ethyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl) were accumulated in the ultrafine-fine (<1μm) and coarse (2.5-10μm) particle size fractions. Others like omethoate, dimethoate and malathion were presented only in the ultrafine-fine size fraction (<1μm). Finally, diuron, diphenylamine and terbuthylazine-desethyl-2-OH also show a bimodal distribution but mainly in the coarse size fractions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Vera T.,Fundacion CEAM | Vera T.,Atmospheric Pesticide Research group of Valencia | Borras E.,Fundacion CEAM | Borras E.,Atmospheric Pesticide Research group of Valencia | And 15 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

The gas-phase degradation of lindane (γ-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane) towards OH radical was investigated under atmospheric conditions at the large outdoor European simulation chamber (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. The rate coefficient for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with lindane was measured using a conventional relative rate technique leading to a value of kOH(lindane)=(6.4±1.6)×10-13cm3molecule-1s-1 at 300±5K and atmospheric pressure. The results suggest that the tropospheric lifetime of lindane with respect to OH radicals is approximately 20days. The product distribution studies on the OH-initiated oxidation of lindane provided evidence that the major initial carbon-containing oxidation product is pentachlorocyclohexanone. 1,3-Dichloroacetone was employed as a model compound for pentachlorocyclohexanone, and an investigation of its photolysis and reaction with OH radicals under atmospheric conditions was carried out. The data indicate that the atmospheric degradation of pentachlorocyclohexanone would be relatively rapid, and would not form persistent organic compounds. Theoretical study was also employed to calculate possible degradation pathways. Mechanism for reaction of lindane with OH radicals is proposed, and C-Cl bond cleavage is discussed. OH abstraction is considered to be a reasonable way for Cl to escape during degradation. The atmospheric implications of the use of lindane as an insecticide are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University College Dublin, Atmospheric Pesticide Research group of Valencia, French National Center for Scientific Research and Shandong University
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2015

The gas-phase degradation of lindane (-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane) towards OH radical was investigated under atmospheric conditions at the large outdoor European simulation chamber (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. The rate coefficient for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with lindane was measured using a conventional relative rate technique leading to a value of kOH(lindane)=(6.41.6)10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 3005 K and atmospheric pressure. The results suggest that the tropospheric lifetime of lindane with respect to OH radicals is approximately 20 days. The product distribution studies on the OH-initiated oxidation of lindane provided evidence that the major initial carbon-containing oxidation product is pentachlorocyclohexanone. 1,3-Dichloroacetone was employed as a model compound for pentachlorocyclohexanone, and an investigation of its photolysis and reaction with OH radicals under atmospheric conditions was carried out. The data indicate that the atmospheric degradation of pentachlorocyclohexanone would be relatively rapid, and would not form persistent organic compounds. Theoretical study was also employed to calculate possible degradation pathways. Mechanism for reaction of lindane with OH radicals is proposed, and C-Cl bond cleavage is discussed. OH abstraction is considered to be a reasonable way for Cl to escape during degradation. The atmospheric implications of the use of lindane as an insecticide are discussed.

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