Okehampton, United Kingdom
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Alfarra M.R.,University of Manchester | Hamilton J.F.,University of York | Wyche K.P.,University of Leicester | Good N.,University of Manchester | And 8 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

The effect of photochemical ageing and initial precursor concentration on the composition and hygroscopic properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed during the chamber photo-oxidation of β-caryophyllene/NOx mixtures were investigated. Nucleation of β-caryophyllene SOA particles occurred almost immediately after oxidation was initiated and led to the formation of fresh SOA with a relatively simpler composition than has been reported for monoterpenes. The SOA yield values ranged from 9.5-26.7% and 30.4-44.5% using a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) mass based measurements, respectively. A total of 20 compounds were identified in the SOA by LC-MS/MS, with the most abundant compounds identified as β-caryophyllonic acid and β-caryophyllinic acid/β- nocaryophyllonic acid. The O:C and H:C elemental ratios of products identified in the condensed phase ranged from 0.20 to 1.00 and 1.00 to 2.00, with average values of 0.39 and 1.58, respectively. The increase in the O: C ratio was associated with a decrease in the saturation concentration of the identified compounds. The compounds identified in the lower initial concentration experiments were more oxidised compared to those that were found to be more abundant in the higher initial concentration experiments with average O:C ratios of 0.51 and 0.27, respectively. Photochemical ageing led to a more complex SOA composition with a larger contribution coming from lower molar mass, higher generation products, where both double bonds had been oxidised. This effect was more evident in the experiments conducted using the lower initial precursor concentration; a finding confirmed by the temporal behaviour of key organic mass fragment measured by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Although the composition changed with both initial precursor concentration and ageing, this had no significant measurable effect on the hygroscopic properties of the SOA formed. The latter finding might have been influenced by the difference in pre-treatment of the semivolatilecontaining particles prior to their measurements. © 2012 Author(s).


Derwent R.G.,Newbury | Utembe S.R.,University of Melbourne | Jenkin M.E.,Atmospheric Chemistry Services | Shallcross D.E.,University of Bristol
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

Ozone tagged labelling schemes have been implemented in a global Lagrangian chemistry-transport model to identify the intercontinental origins of surface ozone in Europe. Stratosphere-troposphere exchange gave rise to between 3 and 5ppb across Europe, whereas the mid-latitudes of the Middle East, Asia and the Pacific Ocean region contributed 6-8ppb. Surface ozone levels of 10-16ppb were associated with the mid-latitudes of North America and the North Atlantic Ocean regions. Appreciable intercontinental ozone production occurred downwind of continental regions and above the surface layer. Intercontinental ozone formation and transport from tropical regions contributed about 4ppb and was much less efficient compared with that from mid-latitudes. There were approaching 60 chemical processes driving intercontinental ozone formation, of which the HO2+NO, CH3O2+NO and CH3COO2+NO reactions were the most important. Ozone production appeared to be driven by OH oxidation of secondary reaction products rather than the oxidation of primary emitted VOCs. The largest intercontinental ozone contributions amounted to about 20ppb from North America to European baseline stations, 14ppb from Asia to North American baseline stations and 10ppb from Asia to European baseline stations. It is possible that changing intercontinental ozone production and transport could have led to seasonal ozone trends and shifts in seasonal cycles at northern hemisphere mid-latitude baseline ozone monitoring stations. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Crowley J.N.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry | Ammann M.,Paul Scherrer Institute | Cox R.A.,University of Cambridge | Hynes R.G.,CSIRO | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010

This article, the fifth in the ACP journal series, presents data evaluated by the IUPAC Subcommittee on Gas Kinetic Data Evaluation for Atmospheric Chemistry. It covers the heterogeneous processes on surfaces of solid particles present in the atmosphere, for which uptake coefficients and adsorption parameters have been presented on the IUPAC website in 2010. The article consists of an introduction and guide to the evaluation, giving a unifying framework for parameterisation of atmospheric heterogeneous processes. We provide summary sheets containing the recommended uptake parameters for the evaluated processes. Four substantial appendices contain detailed data sheets for each process considered for ice, mineral dust, sulfuric acid hydrate and nitric acid hydrate surfaces, which provide information upon which the recommendations are made. © 2010 Author(s).


Ammann M.,Paul Scherrer Institute | Cox R.A.,University of Cambridge | Crowley J.N.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry | Jenkin M.E.,Atmospheric Chemistry Services | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013

This article, the sixth in the ACP journal series, presents data evaluated by the IUPAC Task Group on Atmospheric Chemical Kinetic Data Evaluation. It covers the heterogeneous processes involving liquid particles present in the atmosphere with an emphasis on those relevant for the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and the marine boundary layer, for which uptake coefficients and adsorption parameters have been presented on the IUPAC website since 2009. The article consists of an introduction and guide to the evaluation, giving a unifying framework for parameterisation of atmospheric heterogeneous processes. We provide summary sheets containing the recommended uptake parameters for the evaluated processes. The experimental data on which the recommendations are based are provided in data sheets in separate appendices for the four surfaces considered: liquid water, deliquesced halide salts, other aqueous electrolytes and sulfuric acid. © Author(s) 2013.


Jenkin M.E.,Atmospheric Chemistry Services | Wyche K.P.,University of Leicester | Evans C.J.,University of Leicester | Carr T.,University of Leicester | And 7 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

A degradation mechanism for β-caryophyllene has recently been released as part of version 3.2 of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2), describing the gas phase oxidation initiated by reaction with ozone, OH radicals and NO3 radicals. A detailed overview of the construction methodology is given, within the context of reported experimental and theoretical mechanistic appraisals. The performance of the mechanism has been evaluated in chamber simulations in which the gas phase chemistry was coupled to a representation of the gas-to-aerosol partitioning of 280 multi-functional oxidation products. This evaluation exercise considered data from a number of chamber studies of either the ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, or the photo-oxidation of β-caryophyllene/NO x mixtures, in which detailed product distributions have been reported. This includes the results of a series of photo-oxidation experiments performed in the University of Manchester aerosol chamber, also reported here, in which a comprehensive characterization of the temporal evolution of the organic product distribution in the gas phase was carried out, using Chemical Ionisation Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (CIR-TOF-MS), in conjunction with measurements of NO x, O3 and SOA mass loading. The CIR-TOF-MS measurements allowed approximately 45 time-resolved product ion signals to be detected, which were assigned on the basis of the simulated temporal profiles of the more abundant MCM v3.2 species, and their probable fragmentation patterns. The evaluation studies demonstrate that the MCM v3.2 mechanism provides an acceptable description of β-caryophyllene degradation under the chamber conditions considered, with the temporal evolution of the observables identified above generally being recreated within the uncertainty bounds of key parameters within the mechanism. The studies have highlighted a number of areas of uncertainty or discrepancy, where further investigation would be valuable to help interpret the results of chamber studies and improve detailed mechanistic understanding. These particularly include: (i) quantification of the yield and stability of the secondary ozonide (denoted BCSOZ in MCM v3.2), formed from β-caryophyllene ozonolysis, and elucidation of the details of its further oxidation, including whether the products retain the "ozonide" functionality; (ii) investigation of the impact of NOx on the β-caryophyllene ozonolysis mechanism, in particular its effect on the formation of β-caryophyllinic acid (denoted C137CO2H in MCM v3.2), and elucidation of its formation mechanism; (iii) routine independent identification of β-caryophyllinic acid, and its potentially significant isomer β-nocaryophyllonic acid (denoted C131CO2H in MCM v3.2); (iv) more precise quantification of the primary yield of OH (and other radicals) from β-caryophyllene ozonolysis; (v) quantification of the yields of the first-generation hydroxy nitrates (denoted BCANO3, BCBNO3 and BCCNO3 in MCM v3.2) from the OH-initiated chemistry in the presence of NO x; and (vi) further studies in general to improve the identification and quantification of products formed from both ozonolysis and photo-oxidation, including confirmation of the simulated formation of multifunctional species containing hydroperoxide groups, and their important contribution to SOA under NO x-free conditions. © 2012 Author(s).


Jenkin M.E.,Atmospheric Chemistry Services | Jenkin M.E.,University of Bristol | Young J.C.,University of Leeds | Rickard A.R.,University of York
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2015

The chemistry of isoprene degradation in the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) has been systematically refined and updated to reflect recent advances in understanding, with these updates appearing in the latest version, MCM v3.3.1. The complete isoprene degradation mechanism in MCM v3.3.1 consists of 1926 reactions of 602 closed shell and free radical species, which treat the chemistry initiated by reaction with OH radicals, NO3 radicals and ozone (O3). A detailed overview of the updates is provided, within the context of reported kinetic and mechanistic information. The revisions mainly relate to the OH-initiated chemistry, which tends to dominate under atmospheric conditions, although these include updates to the chemistry of some products that are also generated from the O3-and NO3-initiated oxidation. The revisions have impacts in a number of key areas, including HOx recycling, NOx recycling and the formation of species reported to play a role in SOA (secondary organic aerosol)-formation mechanisms. The performance of the MCM v3.3.1 isoprene mechanism has been compared with those of earlier versions (MCM v3.1 and MCM v3.2) over a range of relevant conditions, using a box model of the tropical forested boundary layer. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed and are used to illustrate the impacts of the mechanistic updates in MCM v3.3.1. © 2015 Author(s).


Jenkin M.E.,Atmospheric Chemistry Services | Jenkin M.E.,University of Bristol
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

The levels of ozone (O3) at a given location in the UK have been reported to be determined by a combination of global (northern hemispheric), regional and local-scale effects. These effects therefore also potentially influence values of the O3 exposure metric, AOT40 (the accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40ppb). A corresponding background oxidant metric, AOXBT40, is defined, which quantifies the value of AOT40 corrected for the effects of local oxidant sources and the chemical coupling of O3 with emitted NOx (i.e. effectively a remote rural background AOT40 value). Data from the UK automatic monitoring network have been analysed to determine values of AOT40 and AOXBT40 at 39 UK sites for the example year of 2009. The spatial variation of AOXBT40 over the UK is consistent with contributions deriving both directly from the northern hemispheric baseline O3 level and from episodic events during which the baseline is supplemented by regional-scale oxidant formation; and the approximate relative importance of these inputs is estimated. The fractional decrement in AOT40 (AOT40/AOXBT40), shows a well-defined dependence on the average NOx level for the hours that contribute to AOXBT40, consistent with the expected impact of the local-scale chemical coupling of O3 and NOx. The AOXBT40 concept can therefore be used to help characterise the factors that control AOT40 on different spatial scales, and its potential applications in empirical O3 exposure modelling activities and model evaluation are briefly discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Jenkin M.E.,Atmospheric Chemistry Services | Jenkin M.E.,University of Bristol
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

Empirical assessments of annual mean [NO2] have often made use of expressions describing its non-linear [NOx]-dependence, based on fitting to a large number of observations. These studies have also shown that annual mean [NO2] data possess a large amount of scatter, such that the target [NOx] that corresponds to the EU annual mean NO2 limit value (40μgm-3) can vary considerably from one site to another. A contribution to this scatter is shown to result from site-to-site variations in the [NOx]-averaging of the non-linear impact of the chemical coupling of NOx and O3 over the annual range of ambient conditions. The variability in the partitioning of oxidant (OX) into its component forms of NO2 and O3 is used as a diagnostic, with a particular focus on the impact of short-timescale [NOx] variability. Annual mean monitoring data from 95 UK sites reporting co-located measurements of O3 and NOx are used in the analysis, consisting of 906 site-years of annual mean concentrations measured over the period 1991-2011. The ratio of the upper and lower quartiles of the annual distribution of hourly mean [NOx] (the quartile ratio, QR) is used as a practical indicator of [NOx] variability. The data in a series of QR intervals are shown to deviate systematically from an idealised [NO2]/[OX] vs. [NOx] curve. The data are well-described by [NOx]-averaging the idealised curve, with QR being well correlated with the range of [NOx] over which the curve is averaged, providing strong evidence of a systematic impact of short-timescale [NOx] variability. A combined analysis of the data for sites nominally categorised as roadside, background and rural shows that (although scattered) the values of QR in each category apparently display systematic trends with annual mean [NOx], showing progressive increases in QR with decreasing [NOx] at roadside and polluted background sites. These dependences are used to interpolate between [NO2]/[OX] vs. [NOx] expressions based on constant QR to produce representative expressions for background and roadside sites. These may be appropriate for application in empirical policy models, with the high level of scatter for each site category being rationalised by the associated range in QR. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Jenkin M.E.,Atmospheric Chemistry Services | Hurley M.D.,Ford Motor Company | Wallington T.J.,Ford Motor Company
Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2010

The reaction of CH3OCH2O2 with HO 2 has been investigated at 296 K and 700 Torr using long path FTIR spectroscopy, during photolysis of Cl2/CH3OCH 3/CH3OH/air mixtures. The branching ratio for the reaction channel forming CH3OCH2O, OH, and O2 has been determined from experiments in which OH radicals were scavenged by addition of benzene to the system, with subsequent formation of phenol used as the primary diagnostic for OH radical formation. The dependence of the phenol yield on the initial peroxy radical precursor reagent concentration ratio, [CH 3OH]0/[CH3OCH3]0, is consistent with prompt OH formation resulting mainly from the reaction of CH3OCH2O2 with HO2, such that the inferred prompt yield of OH is well-correlated with that of CH 3OCH2OOH, a well-established product of the CH 3OCH2O2 + HO2 reaction. The system was fully characterized by simulation, using a detailed chemical mechanism which included other established sources of OH in the system. This allowed a branching ratio of k2c/k2 = 0.19 ± 0.08 to be determined. The results therefore provide strong indirect evidence for the participation of the radical-forming channel of the title reaction. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Derwent R.G.,Rdscientific | Witham C.S.,UK Met Office | Utembe S.R.,University of Bristol | Jenkin M.E.,Atmospheric Chemistry Services | Passant N.R.,Aea Environment And Energy
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2010

Episodic peak ozone levels over the 1990-2007 period appear to have declined strongly whilst annual mean daily maximum levels have risen over the same period at monitoring sites within the midlands regions of the UK. Sensitivity studies carried out with a photochemical trajectory model have shown that European policies to control Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emissions are the likely cause of the decline in episodic peak levels. There appeared to have been little influence on the episodic peak from changes in intercontinental trans-Atlantic transport but an overwhelming influence on the annual mean daily maximum levels. Non-linear relationships between VOC and NOx emission controls and ozone, together with the ambition level set by policy-makers, appear to explain why ozone levels in Central England still do not meet internationally accepted air quality guidelines despite two decades of policy actions within Europe. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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