Saiz-Lopez A.,CSIC - Institute of Physical Chemistry "Rocasolano" |
Baidar S.,University of Colorado at Boulder |
Cuevas C.A.,CSIC - Institute of Physical Chemistry "Rocasolano" |
Koenig T.K.,University of Colorado at Boulder |
And 8 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2015
We report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (solar zenith angle < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer and a global atmospheric model with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 parts per trillion by volume), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, can be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modeled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent to, or even larger than, that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer. © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.