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Flierl G.R.,Atmospheric and Planetary SciencesMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridge | Dyhrman S.T.,Lamont Doherty Earth ObservatoryColumbia UniversityPalisades
Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans

Correlations of Trichodesmium colony abundance with the eddy field emerged in two segments of Video Plankton Recorder observations made in the southwestern North Atlantic during fall 2010 and spring 2011. In fall 2010, local maxima in abundance were observed in cyclones. We hypothesized surface Ekman transport convergence as a mechanism for trapping buoyant colonies in cyclones. Idealized models supported the potential of this process to influence the distribution of buoyant colonies over time scales of several months. In spring 2011, the highest vertically integrated colony abundances were observed in anticyclones. These peaks in abundance correlated with anomalously fresh water, suggesting riverine input as a driver of the relationship. These contrasting results in cyclones and anticyclones highlight distinct mechanisms by which mesoscale eddies can influence the abundance and distribution of Trichodesmium populations of the southwestern North Atlantic. © 2015. The Authors. Source

Sauzede R.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Claustre H.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Jamet C.,Laboratoire Doceanologie Et Of Geosciencesumr8187 | Uitz J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans

A neural network-based method is developed to assess the vertical distribution of (1) chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl]) and (2) phytoplankton community size indices (i.e., microphytoplankton, nanophytoplankton, and picophytoplankton) from in situ vertical profiles of chlorophyll fluorescence. This method (FLAVOR for Fluorescence to Algal communities Vertical distribution in the Oceanic Realm) uses as input only the shape of the fluorescence profile associated with its acquisition date and geo-location. The neural network is trained and validated using a large database including 896 concomitant in situ vertical profiles of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigments and fluorescence. These profiles were collected during 22 oceanographic cruises representative of the global ocean in terms of trophic and oceanographic conditions, making our method applicable to most oceanic waters. FLAVOR is validated with respect to the retrieval of both [Chl] and phytoplankton size indices using an independent in situ data set and appears to be relatively robust spatially and temporally. To illustrate the potential of the method, we applied it to in situ measurements of the BATS (Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Study) site and produce monthly climatologies of [Chl] and associated phytoplankton size indices. The resulting climatologies appear very promising compared to climatologies based on available in situ HPLC data. With the increasing availability of spatially and temporally well-resolved data sets of chlorophyll fluorescence, one possible global-scale application of FLAVOR could be to develop 3-D and even 4-D climatologies of [Chl] and associated composition of phytoplankton communities. The Matlab and R codes of the proposed algorithm are provided as supporting information. © 2015 American Geophysical Union. Source

Song H.,Atmospheric and Planetary SciencesMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridge | Marshall J.,Atmospheric and Planetary SciencesMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridge
Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans

The role of mesoscale eddies in the uptake of anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) gas is investigated with a 1/20° eddy-resolving numerical ocean model of a region of the Southern Ocean. With a relatively fast air-sea equilibrium time scale (about a month), the air-sea CFC-11 flux quickly responds to the changes in the mixed layer CFC-11 partial pressure (pCFC-11). At the mesoscale, significant correlations are observed between pCFC-11 anomaly, anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST), net heat flux, and mixed layer depth. An eddy-centric analysis of the simulated CFC-11 field suggests that anticyclonic warm-core eddies generate negative pCFC-11 anomalies and cyclonic cold-core eddies generate positive anomalies of pCFC-11. Surface pCFC-11 is modulated by mixed layer dynamics in addition to CFC-11 air-sea fluxes. A negative cross correlation between mixed layer depth and surface pCFC-11 anomalies is linked to higher CFC-11 uptake in anticyclones and lower CFC-11 uptake in cyclones, especially in winter. An almost exact asymmetry in the air-sea CFC-11 flux between cyclones and anticyclones is found. © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

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