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Miller M.C.,Huntsman International LLC | Hashmonay R.A.,Atmosfir Optics Ltd. | Graves J.M.,Waid Environmental
American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers, AFPM - Environmental Conference 2015 | Year: 2015

A study was conducted to determine if an alternative method of visible flame verification, Multivariate Image Analysis (MIA), could be developed to monitor the operation of elevated steam assisted flares located at a petrochemical manufacturing facility's ethylene manufacturing unit. The purpose of the study was to determine if flare flame appearance and intensity, as digitally recorded using a high definition video camera, could be correlated with combustion efficiency measured by a Passive Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Analyzer; and used as an alternative method to verify flare combustion efficiency as effectively as calculating Net Heating Value in the Combustion Zone (NHVcz) or Lower Flammability Limit (LFL). In order to develop and confirm that efficient operation of the flares could be verified by analyzing a visible image of the flame recorded by a high definition digital video camera, two steam assisted flares of different manufacturers and designs were studied over a two week period at varying operating conditions. One flare utilizes center steam, as well as upper (ring) and lower (near flare tip opening) steam; while the other flare only injects steam via an upper ring at the flare tip. The two flares were also chosen because they combusted streams of different composition; both are predominantly a hydrogen and methane stream, one with higher hydrogen concentrations while the other contained a higher concentration of the olefins ethylene and propylene in the hydrogen/methane stream. Each flare was simultaneously monitored with a High Definition Video Camera, FLIR Infrared Camera, and a SIGIS 2 Infrared Spectrometer. To the extent practical and achievable, each flare was tested at a target flow, composition, and flame rating condition by varying steam, Waste Gas, and Supplemental Gas rates to the flare. Key objectives of the flare testing were: 1) Investigate a correlation for destruction and removal efficiency ("DRE") as compared to Combustion Efficiency ("CE"); 2) Develop and implement interim process control parameters while continuing evaluation of MIA, 3) Conduct longer-term evaluation of MIA as an alternative means of ongoing flare monitoring, including the development of process control parameters or operator feedback concepts for managing flare operation, 4) If successfully demonstrated, then implement MIA automated process control or, if automation is not successful, alternative operator feedback mechanisms. The field tests indicated that the average flare CE during each test run, based on the Passive Fourier Transform Infrared (PFTIR) measurements and analyses, were greater than 98% under all operating conditions tested, including high Steam-to-Vent Gas (S/VG) ratios and low theoretical calculations of NHVcz. Visual, Infrared (IR), and FLIR imagery suggest that the upper and lower steam did not mix completely within the flame zone, allowing a pocket of efficient combustion to occur within the surrounding steam envelope. Source

Yuen W.,Urbana University | Du K.,University of Calgary | Koloutsou-Vakakis S.,Urbana University | Rood M.J.,Urbana University | And 4 more authors.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2015

A hybrid-optical remote sensing (hybrid-ORS) method was developed to quantify mass emission factors (EFs) for fugitive particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). In-situ range-resolved extinction coefficient and concurrent point measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations are used to quantify twodimensional (2-D) PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration profiles. Integration of each 2-D mass concentration profile with wind data, event duration, and source type provides the corresponding fugitive PM10 and PM2.5 EFs. This method was used to quantify EFs for fugitive PM10 and PM2.5 emitted from tracked and wheeled vehicles travelling on unpaved roads in a desert region. The EFs for tracked vehicles ranged from 206 g/km to 1,738 g/km for PM10 and from 78 g/km to 684 g/km for PM2.5, depending on vehicle speed and vehicle type. The EFs for the wheeled vehicle ranged from 223 g/km to 4,339 g/km for PM10 and from 44 g/km to 1,627 g/km for PM2.5. Field implementation of the hybrid-ORS method demonstrates that the method can rapidly capture multiple profiles of the PM plumes and is well suited for improved quantification of fugitive PM EFs from vehicles traveling on unpaved roads. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research. Source

Wu C.-F.,National Taiwan University | Wu T.-G.,National Taiwan University | Hashmonay R.A.,Atmosfir Optics Ltd. | Chang S.-Y.,National Taiwan University | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

Fugitive emission of air pollutants is conventionally estimated based on standard emission factors. The Vertical Radial Plume Mapping (VRPM) technique, as described in the US EPA OTM-10, is designed to measure emission flux by directly monitoring the concentration of the plume crossing a vertical plane downwind of the site of interest. This paper describes the evaluation results of implementing VRPM in a complex industrial setting (a petrochemical tank farm). The vertical plane was constructed from five retroreflectors and an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The VRPM configuration was approximately 189.2m in width×30.7m in height. In the accompanying tracer gas experiment, the bias of the VRPM estimate was less than 2% and its 95% confidence interval contained the true release rate. Emission estimates of the target VOCs (benzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene, and toluene) ranged from 0.86 to 2.18gs-1 during the 14-day field campaign, while estimates based on the standard emission factors were one order of magnitude lower, possibly leading to an underestimation of the impact of these fugitive emissions on air quality and human health. It was also demonstrated that a simplified 3-beam geometry (i.e., without one dimensional scanning lines) resulted in higher uncertainties in the emission estimates. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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