La Rochelle, France
La Rochelle, France

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Yann S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Yann S.,Joseph Fourier University | Galineau J.,Air Lorraine | Hulin A.,ATMO Poitou Charentes | And 12 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2014

Background: Spatially resolved exposure models are increasingly used in epidemiology. We previously reported that, although exhibiting a moderate correlation, pregnancy nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels estimated by the nearest air quality monitoring station (AQMS) model and a geostatistical model, showed similar associations with infant birth weight. Objectives: We extended this study by comparing a total of four exposure models, including two highly spatially resolved models: a land-use regression (LUR) model and a dispersion model. Comparisons were made in terms of predicted NO2 and particle (aerodynamic diameter<10μm, PM10) exposure and adjusted association with birth weight. Methods: The four exposure models were implemented in two French metropolitan areas where 1026 pregnant women were followed as part of the EDEN mother-child cohort. Results: Correlations between model predictions were high (≥0.70), except for NO2 between the AQMS and both the LUR (r=0.54) and dispersion models (r=0.63). Spatial variations as estimated by the AQMS model were greater for NO2 (95%) than for PM10 (22%). The direction of effect estimates of NO2 on birth weight varied according to the exposure model, while PM10 effect estimates were more consistent across exposure models. Conclusions: For PM10, highly spatially resolved exposure model agreed with the poor spatial resolution AQMS model in terms of estimated pollutant levels and health effects. For more spatially heterogeneous pollutants like NO2, although predicted levels from spatially resolved models (all but AQMS) agreed with each other, our results suggest that some may disagree with each other as well as with the AQMS regarding the direction of the estimated health effects. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Guxens M.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Guxens M.,Hospital Del Mar Research Institute | Guxens M.,CIBER ISCIII | Garcia-Esteban R.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | And 67 more authors.
Epidemiology | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. METHODS: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts - GENERATION R (The Netherlands), DUISBURG (Germany), EDEN (France), GASPII (Italy), RHEA (Greece), and INMA (Spain) - that recruited mother-infant pairs from 1997 to 2008. Air pollution levels - nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) in all regions and particulate matter (PM) with diameters of <2.5, <10, and 2.5-10 μm (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively) and PM2.5 absorbance in a subgroup - at birth addresses were estimated by land-use regression models, based on monitoring campaigns performed primarily between 2008 and 2011. Levels were back-extrapolated to exact pregnancy periods using background monitoring sites. Cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed between 1 and 6 years of age. Adjusted region-specific effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 9482 children were included. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2, was associated with reduced psychomotor development (global psychomotor development score decreased by 0.68 points [95% confidence interval = -1.25 to -0.11] per increase of 10 μg/m in NO2). Similar trends were observed in most regions. No associations were found between any air pollutant and cognitive development. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2 (for which motorized traffic is a major source), was associated with delayed psychomotor development during childhood. Due to the widespread nature of air pollution exposure, the public health impact of the small changes observed at an individual level could be considerable. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Lepeule J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lepeule J.,Joseph Fourier University | Caini F.,Atmo Poitou Charentes | Bottagisi S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 14 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2010

Background: Studies of the effects of air pollutants on birth weight often assess exposure with networks of permanent air quality monitoring stations (AQMSs), which have a poor spatial resolution. Objective: We aimed to compare the exposure model based on the nearest AQMS and a temporally adjusted geostatistical (TAG) model with a finer spatial resolution, for use in pregnancy studies. Methods: The AQMS and TAG exposure models were implemented in two areas surrounding medium-size cities in which 776 pregnant women were followed as part of the EDEN mother-child cohort. The exposure models were compared in terms of estimated nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and of their association with birth weight. Results: The correlations between the two estimates of exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy were r = 0.67, 0.70, and 0.83 for women living within 5, 2, and 1 km of an AQMS, respectively. Exposure patterns displayed greater spatial than temporal variations. Exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy was most strongly associated with birth weight for women living < 2 km away from an AQMS: a 10-μg/m3 increase in NO2 exposure was associated with an adjusted difference in birth weight of -37 g [95% confidence interval (CI), -75 to 1 g] for the nearest-AQMS model and of -51 g (95% CI, -128 to 26 g) for the TAG model. The association was less strong (higher p-value) for women living within 5 or 1 km of an AQMS. Conclusions: The two exposure models tended to give consistent results in terms of association with birth weight, despite the moderate concordance between exposure estimates.

Pedersen M.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Pedersen M.,IMIM Hospital del Mar Research Institute | Pedersen M.,CIBER ISCIII | Pedersen M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 25 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2013

Background: Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may also enhance the potential for confounding. We aimed to discuss some analytical approaches to handle this trade-off. Methods: We modeled NO2 and PM10 concentrations at the home addresses of 1082 pregnant mothers from EDEN cohort living in and around urban areas, using ADMS dispersion model. Simulations were performed to identify the best strategy to limit confounding by unmeasured factors varying with area type. We examined the relation between modeled concentrations and respiratory health in infants using regression models with and without adjustment or interaction terms with area type. Results: Simulations indicated that adjustment for area limited the bias due to unmeasured confounders varying with area at the costs of a slight decrease in statistical power. In our cohort, rural and urban areas differed for air pollution levels and for many factors associated with respiratory health and exposure. Area tended to modify effect measures of air pollution on respiratory health. Conclusions: Increasing the size of the study area also increases the potential for residual confounding. Our simulations suggest that adjusting for type of area is a good option to limit residual confounding due to area-associated factors without restricting the area size. Other statistical approaches developed in the field of spatial epidemiology are an alternative to control for poorly-measured spatially-varying confounders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Delaunay T.,World Trade Center Lille | Gourdeau J.,Atmo Auvergne | Hulin A.,Atmo Poitou Charentes | Monteirck S.,AtmosfAir Bourgogne | Pernot P.,University Paris Diderot
Pollution Atmospherique | Year: 2010

With an increasing public concern on the health risks due to pesticides, the French air quality monitoring networks have been conducting atmospheric measurements of these compounds since 2001. This important work has led to establish two national experimental standards describing atmospheric sampling and analysis methods. Gaseous and particular phases are collected during one day or one week, and analyzed together by liquid and/or gas chromatography equipped with an appropriate detector. The studies were carried out at more than 100 sampling sites in 16 regions, mostly in urban and suburban areas, and in rural places surrounded by cereals or vine, both representing the major French crops. The detection frequency of several compounds such as atrazin (an herbicide banned in 2003) or trifluralin (an herbicide used in sunflowers and rapeseeds) has decreased in the air since 2001. The present study compares the evolution and concentration levels of three pesticides among the investigated urban sites. While the monthly evolution of trifluralin, endosulfan (an organochlorine insecticide) and chlorothalonil (a fungicide widely used to control fungal diseases on vegetables, wheat, peas, vine...) is similar at all sampling sites, the results highlight the difficulty to quantify a similar background level for all regions, except for lindane. This organochlorine insecticide, although being banned for use in agriculture for 10 years, is still continuously found throughout the country at average concentrations of around 0.5 ng/m 3 because of its volatilization from soils and treated woods. Five networks have conducted year-round sampling from 2001 to 2006. The compilation of these studies shows that on average seven different pesticides (mostly herbicides) are found in the air, with an average amount of 7 ng/m 3 per month and sampling site. Further studies show that local use of pesticides surrounding the sampling sites has a direct impact on the amount and type of molecules found. Throughout the year, maximal pesticides numbers and concentrations are found in May and June, with agricultural practices accounting for the majority of pesticides. The average numbers and concentrations measured in June reach about 15 times those of winter levels. Investigations carried out during the application of pesticides reveal that the atmospheric pesticide concentrations are similar within the same agricultural parcel and in the vicinity of it. Their spreading can impact the surrounding village in different ways according to the type of molecule used. Average pesticide amounts in rural areas are generally higher than those in urban areas. These higher concentrations are not necessarily related to higher detection frequencies or higher molecule numbers. In urban and suburban areas - where 66% of the 2 300 measurements were conducted from 2001 to 2006 - the sites are also directly influenced by local applications. Generally, the same type of pesticide can be detected in urban air as that used in the surrounding agricultural area. For example, in the Aquitaine region, typical vine pesticides are found, while in the center of France those molecules which are used on wheat, rapeseed, corn, and sunflowers can be measured. Within the urban areas, the evolution and concentrations of pesticides is very similar and independent of the sampling place, except if there is a nearby field which was treated in the vicinity of it. Two studies carried out of indoor air from 20 houses show the presence of 30 different pesticides, including lindane and three other molecules that are now forbidden but used for wood treatment in the past. Given the amount of time spent indoor, this environment is expected to become a growing field of research interest. Besides the measurement of pesticides in ambient air, the French air quality monitoring networks also take other aspects into account such as contamination, emissions inventories, atmospheric fate of pesticides, etc. Work performed in this scope follows national regulations, e.g., the "Ecophyto 2018" plan which aims at reducing by half the use of pesticides over the next ten years.

Rahmalia A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Giorgis-Allemand L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Giorgis-Allemand L.,Institut Universitaire de France | Lepeule J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2012

Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest an association between air pollution exposure and foetal growth. The possible underlying biological mechanisms have little been studied in humans, but animal studies suggest an impact of atmospheric pollutants on placental function. Objectives: Our aim was to investigate the association between exposure to atmospheric pollutants' levels during pregnancy and placental weight, birth weight and the placental to foetal weights ratio (PFR). For comparison purposes, the effects of active smoking on the same measures at birth have also been estimated. Methods: The study relies on women from Eden mother-child cohort recruited in the middle-sized cities of Poitiers and Nancy (France). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with diameter <10μm (PM10) home address levels during pregnancy were assessed using ADMS-Urban dispersion model. We characterized associations of NO2, PM10 levels and active smoking with placental, birth weights and PFR by distinct linear regression models. Results: Air pollution levels were higher and had greater variability in Nancy (5th-95th centiles, 19.9-27.9μg/m3 for PM10) than in Poitiers (5th-95th centiles, 14.3-17.8μg/m3). Associations differed by study area: in Nancy (355 births), air pollution levels were associated with decreased placental weight and PFR, while in Poitiers (446 births), opposite or null associations were observed. Cigarette smoking was not associated with placental weight while it was associated with a decrease in birth weight and an increase in PFR. Conclusion: Results regarding air pollution estimated effects were not similar in both study areas and should therefore be taken with caution. The placental weight decrease observed with air pollutants in the more polluted area of Nancy is consistent with a recent epidemiological study. In this area, maternal active smoking and PM10 levels tended to have opposite effects on the PFR, suggesting different mechanisms of action of both pollutants on foetal growth. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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