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Askari-Saryazdi G.,University of Tabriz | Hejazi M.J.,University of Tabriz | Ferguson J.S.,Atlantic Turf and Ornamental Consulting | Rashidi M.-R.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2015

The vegetable leafminer (VLM), Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is a serious pest of vegetable crops and ornamentals worldwide. In cropping systems with inappropriate management strategies, development of resistance to insecticides in leafminers is probable. Chlorpyrifos is a commonly used pesticide for controlling leafminers in Iran, but resistance to this insecticide in leafminers has not been characterized. In order to develop strategies to minimize resistance in the field and greenhouse, a laboratory selected chlorpyrifos resistant strain of L. sativae was used to characterize resistance and determine the rate of development and stability of resistance. Selecting for resistance in the laboratory after 23 generations yielded a chlorpyrifos resistant selected strain (CRSS) with a resistance ratio of 40.34, determined on the larval stage. CRSS exhibited no cross-resistance to other tested insecticides except for diazinon. Synergism and biochemical assays indicated that esterases (EST) had a key role in metabolic resistance to chlorpyrifos, but glutathione S-transferase (GST) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) were not mediators in this resistance. In CRSS acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was more active than the susceptible strain, Sharif (SH). AChE in CRSS was also less sensitive to inhibition by propoxur. The kinetics parameters (Km and Vmax ) of AChE indicated that affinities and hydrolyzing efficiencies of this enzyme in CRSS were higher than SH. Susceptibility to chlorpyrifos in L. sativae was re-gained in the absence of insecticide pressure. Synergism, biochemical and cross-resistance assays revealed that overactivity of metabolic enzymes and reduction in target site sensitivity are probably joint factors in chlorpyrifos resistance. An effective insecticide resistance management program is necessary to prevent fast resistance development in crop systems. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Saryazdi G.A.,University of Tabriz | Hejazi M.J.,University of Tabriz | Rashidi M.-R.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Ferguson S.,Atlantic Turf and Ornamental Consulting
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014

The vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, is a key pest of vegetable and ornamental crops worldwide and is mainly controlled by insecticides. The toxicity of fenpropathrin on adult flies of F1 generation of six Iranian populations of the pest was assessed using the residual glass vial method. The bioassay results showed significant differences in susceptibility to fenpropathrin among the populations tested. Resistance ratios ranged from 5.09 to 28.32. The resistant populations were reared in the greenhouse under fenpropathrin pressure for 14 mo and then susceptibility of both larvae and adults of these strains to fenpropathrin was evaluated. The resistance levels significantly increased in these populations. Further study demonstrated that diethyl maleate and triphenyl phosphate had no synergistic effects on fenpropathrin, however, this compound was significantly synergized by piperonyl butoxide in all tested populations. S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate also showed a slight synergism with fenpropathrin. Enzyme assays for general esterases, glutathione S-transferases and monooxygenases were performed on adults and larvae of L. sativae. The activity of glutathione s-transferase in different resistant and susceptible strains was not significantly different. The activity of esterases in resistant strains was higher than the susceptible strain. Monooxygenase levels also were higher in resistant strains compared with the susceptible strain. Synergism and biochemical assays revealed that esterases and monooxygenases have a major role in resistance of L. sativae to fenpropathrin. © 2014 Entomological Society of America. Source

Ferguson S.,Atlantic Turf and Ornamental Consulting | Pineda O.,Atlantic Turf and Ornamental Consulting
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was used to identify polymorphic genomic DNA that would discriminate among cyromazine-resistant, abamectin-resistant, and susceptible Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) leafminers. Using a reference strain that was susceptible to both cyromazine and abamectin, and a cyromazine-resistant strain and an abamectin-resistant strain, 400 oligonucleotides were assayed using RAPD-PCR. We found that two oligonucleotides, B10 and G16, amplified unique bands in the cyromazine-resistant strain but not in the reference or abamectin-resistant strains. Three oligonucleotides, K04, J13, and 102, showed polymorphisms unique to the abamectin-resistant strain but not in the reference or cyromazine-resistant strain. Leaf dip bioassays and RAPD-PCR were performed on two additional reference strains, seven strains from commercial ornamental production greenhouses, and one field strain. The two reference strains were negative for the resistance-correlated oligonucleotides. Of the seven strains from ornamental greenhouses, leaf dip bioassays showed that five had some level of resistance to both abamectin and cyromazine, whereas two were susceptible. The field strain was susceptible to both cyromazine and abamectin. In RAPD-DNA analyses, the five strains with abamectin resistance were positive for the three abamectin resistance-correlated oligonucleotides K04, J13, and 102. In the cases of cyromazine resistance, the five strains with cyromazine resistance were positive for the two cyromazine resistance-correlated oligonucleotides B10 and G16. The field strain and two greenhouse strains that were susceptible in leaf dip bioassays were negative for all three abamectin resistance-correlated oligonucleotides. The field strain and one greenhouse strain were negative for the two cyromazine resistance-correlated oligonucleotides; however, one greenhouse strain that was susceptible to cyromazine in leaf dip bioassay tested positive for one of the cyromazine resistance-correlated oligonucleotides. This method can be used to quickly identify cyromazine resistance, abamectin resistance, or both in leafminers, enabling a grower to choose an effective insecticide for leafminer control in a timely manner. © 2010 Entomological Society of America. Source

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