St. John's, Canada
St. John's, Canada

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Goodwin C.E.,National Museums Northern Ireland | Goodwin C.E.,Queen's University | Goodwin C.E.,Atlantic Reference Center | Berman J.,Ulster Wildlife | And 3 more authors.
Invertebrate Systematics | Year: 2017

This study reviews the taxonomy and biogeography of carnivorous sponges (family Cladorhizidae) in the Southern Ocean. Specimens were collected from seamounts in the Drake Passage by dredging and trawling and biogeographical information from other sources was compiled and reviewed. Eight new species of carnivorous sponges are described: Abyssocladia leverhulmei, sp. nov., Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) sarsensis, sp. nov., A. (A.) gemmae, sp. nov., A. (A.) rhaphidiophorus, sp. nov., Asbestopluma (Helophloeina) keraia, sp. nov., Chondrocladia (Chondrocladia) saffronae, sp. nov., Cladorhiza scanlonae, sp. nov. and Lycopodina drakensis, sp. nov. Specimens of three previously described species, L. callithrix, L. calyx and A. (A.) bitrichela, were also found. These new records increase the number of known carnivorous sponge species in the Southern Ocean by more than a third. We demonstrate that the Cladorhizidae is the second most species-rich family of Demospongiae in the Southern Ocean and many of its species are highly endemic, with 70% found only in this region. Southern Ocean species represent close to 20% of all known carnivorous sponges. This study highlights the importance of seamount and bathyal benthic habitats for supporting the rich and endemic carnivorous sponge fauna of the Southern Ocean. © CSIRO 2017.


Pohle G.,Atlantic Reference Center | Santana W.,University of Sao Paulo | Jansen G.,University of Kiel | Greenlaw M.,St. Andrews Biological Station
Journal of Crustacean Biology | Year: 2011

Wild-caught larvae, attributed to the lobster shrimp Axius serratus, consisting of two zoeal stages and a decapodid (megalopa), are described in detail. Parentage of larvae was ascertained based on geographic distribution of axiideans and gebiideans (= former thalassinideans) within the study area and close morphological resemblance to other congeneric larval stages. Larvae of A. serratus represent the first described 'thalassinidean' larvae from Canadian Atlantic waters and the first for Axiidae within the northwest Atlantic. Among axiidean larvae, those of A. serratus most closely resemble larvae of A. stirhynchus from the eastern Atlantic. Distinct features include the spination of the pleon that set A. serratus zoeae apart from those of most other 'thalassinideans' but that, in combination with a telson very similar to Homarus americanus, contributes to the general resemblance of A. serratus larvae to those of the American lobster. The primary distinction between these taxa is the presence of a chela on the third pereiopod in the latter that is not present in the former. In view of these appendages being prone to loss or damage, other characters that separate these taxa are listed and discussed. Given the uncertain status of some taxa within Axiidae and limited detailed information of larvae with certain parentage, difficulties in delineating the family based on larvae persist, as they do for cladistic analyses using adult morphology and molecular approaches. © The Crustacean Society.


Wildish D.J.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Wildish D.J.,Atlantic Reference Center
Zoosystematics and Evolution | Year: 2014

A new specialist driftwood talitrid from the Swale, U.K., is figured and described as Neotenorchestia kenwildishi gen. n., sp. n. A further new driftwood talitrid, Macarorchestia pavesiae sp. n., is figured and described from coastal regions in the Adriatic Sea. Orchestia microphtalma Amanieu & Salvat, 1963 from the Atlantic coast of France is re-designated as Macarorchestia microphtalma (Amanieu & Salvat, 1963). A key is provided for the known species of driftwood talitrids in northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean coastal regions. © David J. Wildish.


Kraft A.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Nothig E.-M.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Bauerfeind E.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Wildish D.J.,Atlantic Reference Center | And 5 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2013

Pelagic zooplankton were monitored from 2000 to 2012 at a permanent location near the Svalbard archipelago, at the boundary between the central Arctic Ocean and the Greenland Sea in the eastern Fram Strait. The temporal results reveal the first evidence of successful reproduction in Arctic waters by an Atlantic pelagic crustacean from temperate waters. The Atlantic hyperid amphipod Themisto compressa is shown to have expanded its range from more southerly and warmer waters from 2004 onwards. Successful reproductive activity by T. compressa in Arctic waters was confirmed in 2011, indicated by the presence of a complete temporal series of developmental stages including ovigerous females and recently hatched juveniles. The Arctic amphipod community is currently in transition and a continuing northward spread of southern invaders could cause a biodiversity shift from large Arctic to smaller Atlantic species. © Inter-Research 2013.


The recent collection (2009) of an American talon crab, Euchirograpsus americanus A. Milne- Edwards, 1880, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada has expanded the known distribution of this enigmatic plagusiid crab species typically found in subtropical and tropical waters of the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Carolinas. Although historical records are limited, they document a northward range expansion of the species with occurrences off North Carolina in 1962, Delaware in 1979, and further to New Jersey in 1981, which would discount these northerly records as independent, accidental introductions. The present exclusive record of the talon crab in Canadian waters is also from the shallowest (6.3 m) and coldest waters (8.3°C) that the species has thus far been documented in. The literature, until now, indicated an affinity for sandy or rocky bottom between 31 and 510 m depth at temperatures of 11-24°C. While establishment of the species in the region remains uncertain, the present record is perhaps indicative of large-scale processes, such as climate change, that are altering species distributions. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2016.


Mccusker M.R.,University of Toronto | Denti D.,Dalhousie University | Van Guelpen L.,Atlantic Reference Center | Kenchington E.,Bedford Institute of Oceanography | Bentzen P.,Dalhousie University
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2013

Marine fishes from the northwest Atlantic Ocean were analysed to determine whether barcoding was effective at identifying species. Our data included 177 species, 136 genera, 81 families and 28 orders. Overall, 88% of nominal species formed monophyletic clusters based on >500 bp of the CO1 region, and the average bootstrap value for these species was 98%. Although clearly effective, the percentage of species that were distinguishable with barcoding based on the criterion of reciprocal monophyletic clusters was slightly lower than has been documented in other studies of marine fishes. Eelpouts, sculpins and rocklings proved to be among the most challenging groups for barcoding, although we suspect that difficult identifications based on traditional (morphology based) taxonomy played a role. Within several taxa, speciation may have occurred too recently for barcoding to be effective (e.g. within Sebastes, Thunnus and Ammodytes) or the designation of distinct species may have been erroneous (e.g. within Antimora and Macrourus). Results were consistent with previous work recognizing particularly high levels of divergence within certain taxa, some of which have been recognized as distinct species (e.g. Osmerus mordax and Osmerus dentex; and Liparis gibbus and Liparis bathyarcticus), and some of which have not (e.g. within Halargyreus johnsonii and within Mallotus villosus). The results from this study suggest that morphology-based identification and taxonomy can be challenging in marine fishes, even within a region as well characterized as Atlantic Canada. Barcoding proved to be a very useful tool for species identification that will likely find a wide range of applications, including the fisheries trade, studies of range expansion, ecological analyses and population assessments. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Wildish D.J.,Atlantic Reference Center | Kraft A.,Atlantic Reference Center | Pohle G.W.,Atlantic Reference Center | Lecroy S.E.,University of Southern Mississippi
Crustaceana | Year: 2011

Populations of Platorchestia platensis (Krøyer, 1845) and Orchestia grillus Bosc, 1802 (Amphipoda, Talitroidea) show variations in body size throughout their range in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Atlantic coast of North America. For each species we describe an intraspecific correlation between median body size and degrees of latitude north, such that in populations progressively further north from the equator, the median body size becomes larger. This growth and development pattern is consistent with the metabolic theory of ecology and appears to be general among Talitridae, with a few exceptions. © 2011 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.


Halliday R.G.,Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Center | Van Guelpen L.,Atlantic Reference Center | Themelis D.E.,Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Center
Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science | Year: 2012

The demersal fish fauna at 900-1800 m depths off Nova Scotia, Canada, is described using data from exploratory bottom trawl surveys conducted in November 1994 and March 1995 by a commercial fishing trawler. Approximately 25 metric tons (39 000 specimens) of demersal fish belonging to at least 82 species were caught, 30% of which had not previously been recorded from the area. However, more than half the catch consisted of the two species Centroscyllium fabricii (black dogfish) and Coryphaenoides rupestris (roundnose grenadier). Catches were higher in the shallower depth strata fished and cluster analysis showed that depth was the primary factor determining species composition of catches. It is suspected, however, that the vessel fished less effectively at depths greater than about 1500 m, contributing to the reduction in catch quantities at these depths. The importance in catches of large bodied species, particularly Chimaeriformes and sharks, contrasts with results from surveys in adjacent areas. This likely reflects the greater fishing power of the vessel/gear used in present surveys rather than real differences in faunal composition. Catches of mesopelagic species during these surveys, and during an earlier deepwater trawling survey in this area, are also described. © Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada, 2012.


Coulson M.W.,Dalhousie University | Coulson M.W.,Marine Scotland - Marine Laboratory | Denti D.,Dalhousie University | Van Guelpen L.,Atlantic Reference Center | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2011

DNA-based identifications have been employed across broad taxonomic ranges and provide an especially useful tool in cases where external identification may be problematic. This study explored the utility of DNA barcoding in resolving skate species found in Atlantic Canadian waters. Most species were clearly resolved, expanding the utility for such identification on a taxonomically problematic group. Notably, one genus (Amblyraja) contained three of four species whose distributions do not overlap that could not be readily identified with this method. On the other hand, two common and partially sympatric species (Little and Winter skates) were readily identifiable. There were several instances of inconsistency between the voucher identification and the DNA sequence data. In some cases, these were at the intrageneric level among species acknowledged to be prone to misidentification. However, several instances of intergeneric discrepancies were also identified, suggesting either evidence of past introgressive hybridization or misidentification of vouchered specimens across broader taxonomic ranges. Such occurrences highlight the importance of retaining vouchered specimens for subsequent re-examination in the light of conflicting DNA evidence. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Colavite J.,Sacred Heart University of Brazil | Santana W.,Sacred Heart University of Brazil | Pohle G.,Atlantic Reference Center
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2014

The larval development of the spider crab Menaethius monoceros (Latreille, 1825) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea: Epialtinae) is described and illustrated from laboratory-reared larvae. The development consisted of two zoeal stages and one megalopa, following the typical pattern in Majoidea. The duration of the first zoeal stage was 4-11 days, the second zoea appearing 5-12 days and the megalopa 10-18 days after hatching. Both zoeal stages of Menaethius monoceros have a distinct setation on the distal segment of the endopod of maxilliped II. In the megalopa only the setation of the exopod of the antennule is diagnostic among Epialtinae. Comparative analysis revealed that some of the previous descriptions are probably not those of Menaethius monoceros. Based on existing limited information no single morphological feature, or set of features, is apparent that characterizes epialtine larvae. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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