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Kaur R.,Dalhousie University | Rathgeber B.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Thompson K.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | MacIsaac J.,Atlantic Poultry Research Institute
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of eggs from 2 selected commercial strains of laying hens and 2 unselected lines of chickens fed diets with different combinations of Ca and vitamin D and relate it to the profile of uterine proteins and ultrastructure of the shell. A group of 4 chickens was housed in each of 24 cages. The group consisted of one representative from each of the following breeds: Lohmann LSL- Lite, Lohmann Classic-Brown, Fayoumi, and Light Sussex. Six dietary combinations of Ca and vitamin D3 (3.35%, 2,500 IU; 4.10%, 2,500 IU (control); 4.85%, 2,500 IU; 3.35%, 200 IU; 4.10%, 200 IU; and 4.85%, 200 IU) were randomly assigned to 4 replicate cages for 2 treatment periods (26-29 and 56-59 wk of age). Data were analyzed as a split-plot design with cage as the main plot and hen as the subplot. Egg quality traits were different (P < 0.0001) between commercial and heritage breeds. Lohmann Brown had stronger shells with higher specific gravity compared with other breeds. Both commercial and heritage birds responded to a drop in vitamin D3 level by marked reduction in shell thickness. The SDS-PAGE profiles of uterine fluid samples revealed a decrease (P < 0.05) in 200-, 150-, 116-, and ≤6.5- kDa proteins, whereas proteins with molecular weight (MW) of 80, 55, 52, 45, 42, and 28 kDa increased with bird age. A 36- and 52-kDa protein band was most intense for Fayoumi compared with other breeds. Ultrastructural characteristics showed flattened and deeply etched mammillary caps for Lohmann Brown and the presence of type A and type B bodies between mammillary cones in eggshells from Fayoumi and Lohmann Lite. The negative correlation between ultrastructural characteristics, which decrease with bird age, and the 116-kDa uterine protein band could provide insight into reduced eggshell quality as hens age. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source


Anderson D.M.,Dalhousie University | Macisaac J.L.,Atlantic Poultry Research Institute | Safamehr A.,Islamic Azad University at Maragheh
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2012

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diluting broiler diets with increasing levels of whole hulless barley (WHB) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. A total of 144 one-day-old male broiler chicks were fed the same starter diet with 5% WHB dilution. Grower diets (16 to 24 d) were diluted with 0, 7.5, 15, and 22.5% WHB, and finisher diets (25 to 36 d) were diluted with 0, 15, 30, and 45% WHB, respectively. All diets were supplemented with a commercial dietary enzyme. Birds fed the 22.5 and 45% WHB in grower and finisher diets had lower 36-d BW (P ≤ 0.05) than those fed the other treatments. From 25 to 36 d, birds fed the 30 and 45% WHB diets were less efficient (P ≤ 0.05) than those fed the undiluted diet. The AME value of the 22.5% WHB grower diet was lower (P ≤ 0.05) than those of the other grower diets, and the AME value of the 15% WHB grower diet was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of the undiluted diet. All WHB finisher diets had lower (P ≤ 0.05) CP contents than the undiluted diet. The AME values of the finisher diets diluted with WHB were lower (P ≤ 0.05) than that of the undiluted diet. On the basis of these growth performance and digestibility data, optimal growth performance may be achieved by diluting broiler chicken diets with WHB up to a level of 7.5% in the grower period and 15% in the finisher period. © 2012 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Source


Rathgeber B.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Anderson D.M.,Dalhousie University | Thompson K.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | MacIsaac J.L.,Atlantic Poultry Research Institute | Budge S.,Dalhousie University
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Consumer demands for food products enriched with healthful n-3 fatty acids are steadily increasing. Feeding marine byproducts may provide an economical means of increasing the long-chain n-3 content of broiler tissues. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary lobster meal (LM) on the color and fatty acid profile of broiler chicken fatty tissue. Broilers were fed increasing levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) of LM for 35 d. Fat pad samples were collected at slaughter and color and fatty acid concentrations were determined. A linear effect was found of LM on red coloration (P < 0.05) as dietary LM increased. Fat pad eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels also increased (P < 0.0001) in a linear fashion. The essential long-chain fatty acids were lower for the 10% LM diet (0.37 mg of EPA/g; 0.16 mg of DHA/g) compared with the 8% LM diet (0.51 mg of EPA/g; 0.27 mg of DHA/g). Using lobster meal as a feed ingredient resulted in broiler abdominal fat pads with a favorable increase in n-3 fatty acids. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source


Safamehr A.,Islamic Azad University at Maragheh | Langille M.l.,Dalhousie University | Anderson D.M.,Dalhousie University | MacIsaac J.L.,Atlantic Poultry Research Institute
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2013

Mineral composition and in vitro solubility rates for 14 different Atlantic calcium (Ca) sources were assessed. Fourteen test Ca sources [commercial limestone, granular limestone, shell mix, AIM-limestone, oyster shell, crab shell (CS), lobster shell (LS), blue mussel shell, blue mussel shell-clean, surf-clam shell, soft-clam shell, scallop shell, quahog shell, abalone shell, and whelk shell] were separated into their particle size groups that ranged from <0.05 mm, >1.0 to <1.41 mm, and >1.41 to <2.83 mm. Average concentration of Ca was 36 g/kg in all Ca sources (except CS and LS). Calcium content was 20.35 and 20.32% in CS and LS, respectively. The mineral composition analysis showed values of P varying from 0.03 to 1.8%, Mg from 0.01 to 1.2%, K from 0.005 to 0.32%, Na from 0.02 to 0.81%, Mn from 7.22 to 2168 mg/kg, Zn from 23.8 to 120.5 mg/kg, Fe from 0 to 37.9 mg/kg, Cu from 10.4 to 41 mg/kg, and boron from 0 to 163 mg/kg. There was significant interaction (P < 0.05) between Ca sources and time for solubility for different particle size of Ca sources. In vitro solubility was dependent upon Ca source and particle size (P < 0.0001) with small particle generally having a greater in vitro solubility than large particle at the same time. The in vitro solubility rate of these Ca sources would provide a new and adequate source of Ca and a steady rate of Ca during the dark period. It was concluded that the observed mineral concentration and in vitro solubility differences between the examined Ca sources could be exploited to ensure optimum supply of Ca and most minerals, but lower in vitro solubility and Ca content of CS and LS would likely limit the use of CS and LS. © 2013 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Source


Langille M.A.,Dalhousie University | Anderson D.M.,Dalhousie University | MacIsaac J.L.,Atlantic Poultry Research Institute
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

A full-cycle laying hen study was conducted to evaluate crab meal (CM) and lobster meal (LM) as feed ingredients for laying hens by assigning four hundred thirty-two 35-wk-old White Leghorns to 1 of 6 diets [control, 2.5% CM, 2.5% LM, 5% CM, 5% LM, and 2.5% CM + 2.5% LM (blend)]. Productive performance and egg parameters were evaluated every 28-d period. Eggs were collected at 67 wk of age from the 5% CM, 5% LM, and blend treatments for analysis of yolk fatty acid composition. At 55 and 67 wk of age, ulnas were collected to determine breaking strength, percent ash, and calcium. Body weights, feed consumption, hen-day production, feed efficiency, and egg quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment. The L* scores of eggs from 5% CM, 5% LM, and blend were lower (P < 0.05) than eggs from the control by the end of the second 28-d period. The a* score of the eggs from 5% CM, 5% LM, and blend was higher (P < 0.05) than the control by the end of the first 28-d period. The content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in egg yolks was different (P < 0.05) among the control (0.17 g/100 g), 5% CM (0.46 g/100 g), 5% LM (0.32 g/100 g), and blend (0.38 g/100 g) treatments. Treatment did not affect (P > 0.05) any of the bone parameters measured at 55 and 67 wk of age. CM and LM supported similar egg production, feed efficiency, egg yolk color, adequate bone strength, and the incorporation of DHA into egg yolks. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

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