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Bradbury I.R.,Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Center | Bradbury I.R.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Bowman S.,Atlantic Genome Center | Borza T.,Atlantic Genome Center | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Hybrid zones provide unprecedented opportunity for the study of the evolution of reproductive isolation, and the extent of hybridization across individuals and genomes can illuminate the degree of isolation. We examine patterns of interchromosomal linkage disequilibrium (ILD) and the presence of hybridization in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, in previously identified hybrid zones in the North Atlantic. Here, previously identified clinal loci were mapped to the cod genome with most (∼70%) occurring in or associated with (<5 kb) coding regions representing a diverse array of possible functions and pathways. Despite the observation that clinal loci were distributed across three linkage groups, elevated ILD was observed among all groups of clinal loci and strongest in comparisons involving a region of low recombination along linkage group 7. Evidence of ILD supports a hypothesis of divergence hitchhiking transitioning to genome hitchhiking consistent with reproductive isolation. This hypothesis is supported by Bayesian characterization of hybrid classes present and we find evidence of common F1 hybrids in several regions consistent with frequent interbreeding, yet little evidence of F2 or backcrossed individuals. This work suggests that significant barriers to hybridization and introgression exist among these co-occurring groups of cod either through strong selection against hybrid individuals, or genetic incompatibility and intrinsic barriers to hybridization. In either case, the presence of strong clinal trends, and little gene flow despite extensive hybridization supports a hypothesis of reproductive isolation and cryptic speciation in Atlantic cod. Further work is required to test the degree and nature of reproductive isolation in this species. © 2014 Bradbury et al. Source

Bradbury I.R.,Dalhousie University | Bradbury I.R.,University of Windsor | Hubert S.,Atlantic Genome Center | Higgins B.,Atlantic Genome Center | And 11 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Despite the enormous economic and ecological importance of marine organisms, the spatial scales of adaptation and biocomplexity remain largely unknown. Yet, the preservation of local stocks that possess adaptive diversity is critical to the long-term maintenance of productive stable fisheries and ecosystems. Here, we document genomic evidence of range-wide adaptive differentiation in a broadcast spawning marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhud), using a genome survey of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Of 1641 gene-associated polymorphisms examined, 70 (4.2%) tested positive for signatures of selection using a Bayesian approach. We identify a subset of these loci (n = 40) for which allele frequencies show parallel temperature-associated clines (p < 0.001, r2 = 0.89) in the eastern and western north Atlantic. Temperature associations were robust to the statistical removal of geographic distance or latitude effects, and contrasted 'neutral' loci, which displayed no temperature association. Allele frequencies at temperature-associated loci were significantly correlated, spanned three linkage groups and several were successfully annotated supporting the involvement of multiple independent genes. Our results are consistent with the evolution and/or selective sweep of multiple genes in response to ocean temperature, and support the possibility of a new conservation paradigm for non-model marine organisms based on genomic approaches to resolving functional and adaptive diversity. © 2010 The Royal Society. Source

Rise M.L.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Hall J.R.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Rise M.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Hori T.S.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | And 7 more authors.
Physiological Genomics | Year: 2010

Nodaviruses and other RNA viruses have a profoundly negative impact on the global aquaculture industry. Nodaviruses target nervous tissue causing viral nervous necrosis, a disease characterized by neurological damage, swimming abnormalities, and morbidity. This study used functional genomic techniques to study the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain transcript expression responses to asymptomatic high nodavirus carrier state and intraperitoneal injection of polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC). Reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries enriched for virus-responsive brain transcripts were constructed and characterized. We generated 1,938 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a forward brain SSH library (enriched for transcripts upregulated by nodavirus and/or pIC) and 1,980 ESTs from a reverse brain SSH library (enriched for transcripts downregulated by nodavirus and/or pIC). To examine the effect of nodavirus carrier state on individual brain gene expression in asymptomatic cod, 27 transcripts of interest were selected for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) studies. Transcripts found to be >10-fold upregulated in individuals with a high nodavirus carrier state relative to those in a no/low nodavirus carrier state were identified as ISG15, IL8, DHX58 (alias LGP2), ZNFX1, RSAD2 (alias viperin), and SACS (sacsin, alias spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay). These and other SSH-identified transcripts were also found by QPCR to be significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated by pIC compared with saline-injected controls within 72 h of injection. Several transcripts identified in the reverse SSH library, including two putative ubiquitination pathway members (HERC4 and SUMO2), were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) downregulated in individuals with a high nodavirus carrier state. Our data shows that Atlantic cod brains have a strong interferon pathway response to asymptomatic high nodavirus carrier state and that many interferon pathway and other immune relevant transcripts are significantly induced in brain by both nodavirus and pIC. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society. Source

Bradbury I.R.,Dalhousie University | Hubert S.,Atlantic Genome Center | Higgins B.,Atlantic Genome Center | Bowman S.,Atlantic Genome Center | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2011

The increasing use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in studies of nonmodel organisms accentuates the need to evaluate the influence of ascertainment bias on accurate ecological or evolutionary inference. Using a panel of 1641 expressed sequence tag-derived SNPs developed for northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), we examined the influence of ascertainment bias and its potential impact on assignment of individuals to populations ranging widely in origin. We hypothesized that reductions in assignment success would be associated with lower diversity in geographical regions outside the location of ascertainment. Individuals were genotyped from 13 locations spanning much of the contemporary range of Atlantic cod. Diversity, measured as average sample heterozygosity and number of polymorphic loci, declined (c.30%) from the western (He=0.36) to eastern (He=0.25) Atlantic, consistent with a signal of ascertainment bias. Assignment success was examined separately for pools of loci representing differing degrees of reductions in diversity. SNPs displaying the largest declines in diversity produced the most accurate assignment in the ascertainment region (c.83%) and the lowest levels of correct assignment outside the ascertainment region (c.31%). Interestingly, several isolated locations showed no effect of assignment bias and consistently displayed 100% correct assignment. Contrary to expectations, estimates of accurate assignment range-wide using all loci displayed remarkable similarity despite reductions in diversity. Our results support the use of large SNP panels in assignment studies of high geneflow marine species. However, our evidence of significant reductions in assignment success using some pools of loci suggests that ascertainment bias may influence assignment results and should be evaluated in large-scale assignment studies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Bradbury I.R.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Bradbury I.R.,Dalhousie University | Bradbury I.R.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Hubert S.,Atlantic Genome Center | And 13 more authors.
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2013

As populations diverge, genomic regions associated with adaptation display elevated differentiation. These genomic islands of adaptive divergence can inform conservation efforts in exploited species, by refining the delineation of management units, and providing genomic tools for more precise and effective population monitoring and the successful assignment of individuals and products. We explored heterogeneity in genomic divergence and its impact on the resolution of spatial population structure in exploited populations of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, using genome wide expressed sequence derived single nucleotide polymorphisms in 466 individuals sampled across the range. Outlier tests identified elevated divergence at 5.2% of SNPs, consistent with directional selection in one-third of linkage groups. Genomic regions of elevated divergence ranged in size from a single position to several cM. Structuring at neutral loci was associated with geographic features, whereas outlier SNPs revealed genetic discontinuities in both the eastern and western Atlantic. This fine-scale geographic differentiation enhanced assignment to region of origin, and through the identification of adaptive diversity, fundamentally changes how these populations should be conserved. This work demonstrates the utility of genome scans for adaptive divergence in the delineation of stock structure, the traceability of individuals and products, and ultimately a role for population genomics in fisheries conservation. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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