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Fredericton, Canada

Fageria M.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Boquel S.,S.I.P.R.E Comite Nord | Leclair G.,Atlantic Forestry Center | Pelletier Y.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
American Journal of Potato Research

The focus of this study was to evaluate two mineral oils (Superior 70 and Vazyl-Y) in reducing the seasonal spread of Potato Virus Y (PVY). Three concentrations of oil (0, 5, and 10 L ha-1 of Superior 70; 0, 7.5, and 15 L ha-1 of Vazyl-Y) and three spray regimes for both oils (every 3-4, 7, and 10- 11 days) were tested. Two weeks after top-kill, two tubers from each of 49 plants free of virus at emergence were harvested from treatment plots, sprouted, and tested for PVY with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results revealed that in the case of Superior 70, PVY spread in mineral oil treated plots ranged from 2.1 to 12.2 %, while in the control plots it ranged from 20.4 to 37.7 % across three cultivars. In the case of Vazyl-Y, PVY spread in mineral oil treated plots ranged from 2.1 to 26.5 %, while in the control plots it ranged from 49.9 to 85.7 % across three cultivars. These data show that there was a significant reduction in PVY due to spray of mineral oils. In addition, mineral oil was quantified in plants from the Superior 70 treated and the control plots to understand the dynamics of mineral oil during the season. While there was little to no oil measured in the leaves at the early stages of plant growth, a considerable amount of mineral oil was detected close to plant maturity. A basic model of the concentration of oil in the treated foliage was formulated to confirm our understanding of the factors at play. The model could explain from 50 to 90 % of the variation in oil content observed in the field. Plant growth and size are important factors affecting oil content in mineral oil treated foliage. © Potato Association of America 2014. Source

van Frankenhuyzen K.,Natural Resources Canada | Lucarotti C.,Atlantic Forestry Center | Lavallee R.,Laurentian Forestry Center
Canadian Entomologist

The study of insect pathogens became established as a distinct discipline in the late 1940s. In the ~65 years that followed, forest pest management was the main theatre for the development and practice of insect pathology in Canada. Researchers from the federal government and academic institutions contributed to the growing discipline by acquiring foundational knowledge on taxonomy, mode of action, natural occurrence, and ecological role of key pathogens infecting forest pest insects, covering an array of fungi, Microsporidia, viruses, and bacteria. The ultimate goal was to develop pathogen-based alternatives to synthetic insecticides used in large-scale forest protection programmes throughout eastern Canada. That goal was achieved through the development of baculovirus-based products for control of gypsy moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), tussock moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), and various sawfly (Hymenoptera) species, which are now in the hands of private industry and poised for growing operational use. The second success was the development of products based on Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillaceae), which have almost entirely replaced synthetic insecticides in forest protection. We review those successes and other key Canadian contributions to forest insect pathology within the context of emerging digital, molecular, and other technologies, and show how they have altered today’s face of forest pest management in Canada. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Natural Resources Source

Evenden M.L.,University of Alberta | Silk P.J.,Atlantic Forestry Center
Canadian Entomologist

Insects use semiochemicals to mediate important behaviours such as mating, oviposition, and foraging for resources. Chemical ecology research aims to identify these message-bearing chemicals and develop synthetic copies of semiochemicals for use in integrated pest management (IPM). There has been, and continues to be, an extensive research effort to understand the chemical ecology of various insects considered to be pests of forests in Canada. Canadian chemical ecology research has had an impact on IPM of forest insect pests in Canada and around the world. Canadian researchers have been involved in the identification of semiochemicals used by forest insects and the development and implementation of semiochemical-based management tactics for forest pest management. Semiochemicals have been incorporated into forest pest management for a variety of insect taxa primarily as tools to monitor and control forest insect pests in Canada. The goals of the current review are to: (1) highlight research conducted on semiochemical-based management of forest pests in Canada; (2) discuss the current and potential uses of semiochemicals in IPM of forest pests in Canada; and (3) evaluate potential areas for increased research and implementation of semiochemicals into the management of forest pests in Canada. © Entomological Society of Canada 2015 Source

Hansen E.M.,Logan Research | Bentz B.J.,Logan Research | Powell J.A.,Utah State University | Gray D.R.,Atlantic Forestry Center | Vandygriff J.C.,Logan Research
Journal of Insect Physiology

The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), is an important mortality agent of native spruces throughout North America. The life-cycle duration of this species varies from 1 to 3. years depending temperature. The univoltine cycle (one generation per year) is thought to maximize outbreak risk and accelerate host mortality in established outbreaks. Prepupal diapause is associated with the semivoltine cycle (one generation per 2. years) and we investigated thermal conditions that result in diapause induction. Preliminary experiments used respirometry in an attempt to distinguish the diapause state of experimental insects but the technique was apparently confounded by low respiration before and during pupation, regardless of diapause status. Therefore, diapause induction was deduced using developmental delays. The observed developmental response was not a " switch" , with developmental delay either present or absent, but instead varied continuously. We found that temperatures <15°C from instar III through mid-instar IV were associated with developmental delays beyond that expected from cool temperatures. Moreover, the duration of exposure to cool temperatures was important in determining the degree of developmental delay. Small, if any, delays were observed if the cumulative exposure to <15°C was <20. d whereas >40. d cumulative exposure was associated with distinct developmental suppression. Intermediate exposure to cool temperatures resulted in minor developmental delays. We used our results to parameterize a maximum likelihood estimation model of temperature-dependent instar IV developmental rates, including the effect of diapause. This model can be included as part of a spruce beetle phenology model for predicting population dynamics. © 2011. Source

Flanagan M.,University of New Brunswick | Roy-Mcdougall V.,NatureNB | Forbes G.,University of New Brunswick | Forbes G.,Atlantic Forestry Center
Canadian Field-Naturalist

Wood Turtles (Glyptemys insculpta) are difficult to survey because their use of aquatic and terrestrial environments varies spatio-temporally. existing survey methodology is highly variable and typically involves searching for Wood Turtles within water and on land 0 to >20 m from the shoreline from spring to autumn. The mobility of Wood Turtles suggests that detection is likely influenced by distance surveyed from water and the amount of vegetation, which varies by season. To determine an ideal survey methodology for the Wood Turtle, we recorded distances from a waterway of 31 radio-tagged turtles at canadian Forces base, gagetown, new brunswick, in 2003 and 2004. ordinal logistic regression was used to determine the probability of finding male or female Wood Turtles with increasing distance from water at different times of day or season. Sex and time of day were not significant factors in detecting Wood Turtles. Season was a significant factor, with highest probability (69%) of finding Wood Turtles at a distance of 0-10 m of a waterway up to July 1 (corresponding to pre-nesting and nesting periods), compared to probabilities of <10% for any 10-m distance between 10 m and 50 m from a waterway. after July 1, the highest detection probability (50%) was at distances greater than 50 m from a waterway. We recommend that Wood Turtle surveys for environmental impact assessments and population monitoring be conducted on warm days (i.e., 10-25°c) within 10 m of waterways up to July 1. Source

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