Ostaff D.P.,Natural Resources Canada |
Mosseler A.,Natural Resources Canada |
Johns R.C.,Natural Resources Canada |
Javorek S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2015
Willows (Salix spp.) are ubiquitous in the northern hemisphere, serving as an important pollen and nectar resource for insect pollinators and for the enhancement of insect-pollinated agricultural crops such as fruits and berries. We used a common-garden field test containing seven native North American willow species to assess attractiveness of male and female flower catkins by documenting visits of Andrena spp. (Apoidea: Anthophila), other wild bees (all native), and flower flies (Syrphidae). Most willows in Canada’s Maritimes begin flowering very early in spring, as the first wild pollinators become active following winter, and stop flowering by mid-May. A later-flowering group normally begins flowering in mid-May and stops flowering by mid-June. Pollinator species were largely opportunistic, visiting whatever species of willow flowers were available during foraging, but Andrena dunningi appeared to prefer flowers of S. nigra and S. interior. There was a general preference for male flower catkins, with 72% of Andrena spp. and 82% of all flower flies collecting pollen and/or nectar from male flowers, because pollen is the major component of nest provisioning for most solitary bees and the major source of protein used to develop reproductive tissues in most flower flies. Most andrenids and flower flies were collected within the April-June flowering period of six of the seven willow species studied, indicating that these willows could be used to support the pollinator community before the flowering period of commercially valuable flower-pollinated crops such as lowbush blueberry, cranberry, and apple. © 2015 (publisher name) All rights reserved.
Klymko J.,Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Center |
Marshall S.A.,University of Guelph
Zootaxa | Year: 2011
The New World species of the curtonotid genus Curtonotum Macquart are reviewed, and all species outside the vulpinum and murinum species complexes (as defined below) are revised. Descriptions and illustrations are provided for 24 species, including 13 newly described species: C. adusticrus sp. n., C. atlanticum sp. n., C. bivittatum sp. n., C. brunneum sp. n., C. curtispinum sp. n., C. desperatum sp. n., C. papillatum sp. n., C. gracile sp. n., C. hunkingi sp. n., C. flavisetum sp. n., C. floridense sp. n., C. nigrum sp. n., and C. scambum sp. n. Curtonotum nigripalpe Hendel is proposed as a new junior synonym of C. hendelianum (Enderlein). A key to these New World species is presented and the phylogenetic relation-ships between them are discussed. Lectotypes are designated for C. tumidum Enderlein, C. bathmedum Hendel, C. taenia-tum Hendel, C. trypetipenne Hendel, C. impunctatum Hendel, 1913, nec impunctatum Hendel, 1932 and C. apicale Hendel. Curtonotum perplexum nom. n., is given as the replacement name for C. impunctatum Hendel, 1932 nec impunc-tatum Hendel, 1913. Two species complexes are left untreated at the species level (the C. murinum species complex, in-cluding C. murinum Hendel, C. coriaceum Hendel, C. perplexum nom. n., and C. decumanum Bezzi; and the C. vulpinum species complex including C. vulpinum Hendel and C. fumipenne Hendel). Both complexes are included in the phyloge-netic analysis and key. © 2011 Magnolia Press.
Robinson S.L.,Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Center |
Lundholm J.T.,Saint Marys University, Halifax
Urban Ecosystems | Year: 2012
Spontaneous vegetation colonizes large areas in and around cities. These unmanaged areas are considered to have low economic value or indicate dereliction, but recent research suggests that these can contribute valuable ecosystem services. This study evaluates indicators of ecosystem services in three habitats: urban spontaneous vegetation (USV), managed lawns, and semi-natural urban forest, in Halifax, Nova Scotia. USV had higher indicator values for habitat provisioning (plant species diversity, invertebrate abundance and taxonomic diversity) than the other habitats. Indicators of climatic regulatory services (albedo and leaf area index) in USV were similar to those in lawn habitats. Organic carbon content of the soils, an indicator of carbon storage, was lowest in USV but only marginally lower than in lawns. Standing biomass, an indicator of production services, was lowest in USV but lawn production may have been overestimated. While USV sites are usually transitory components of the urban landscape, they deserve further consideration due to their provision of ecosystem services, in some cases to a greater extent than conventionally valued urban habitats. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Wiersma Y.F.,Memorial University of Newfoundland |
Skinner R.,Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Center
Endangered Species Research | Year: 2011
The worldwide population of the boreal felt lichen Erioderma pedicellatum is currently listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, with over 95% of the current population residing on the island of Newfoundland, Canada. Surveys of E. pedicellatum habitats and populations have primarily been opportunistic, rather than systematic, in nature. We used a geographic information system and compiled occurrence data and pseudo-absence data to develop the first predictive spatial distribution model for E. pedicellatum in Newfoundland. Of the suite of 19 models using 4 different parameters examined, the model with distance from coastline and topographic aspect was the best candidate. The final model had low sensitivity (i.e. a low ability to predict false presence), but high specificity (a strong ability to predict true absence). The final predictive model can contribute to future species status assessments and provincial conservation management decisions that require information on probable species distribution.
Oldham M.J.,Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources |
Klymko J.,Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Center
Northeastern Naturalist | Year: 2011
The purpose of this paper is to document the spread of Dyssodia papposa (Asteraceae; Fetid Dogweed) along roadsides in eastern Canada. Fetid Dogweed is reported new to the provinces of Manitoba and Qubec, Canada, and has greatly expanded its range along southern Ontario highways in the past 15 years. It is expected to continue to expand in northeastern North America. The distinctive appearance of this plant combined with earlier botanical fieldwork along Ontario highways makes it highly unlikely that this species was previously overlooked.