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Magill S.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Edwards J.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Beldavs Z.G.,Oregon Public Health Authority | Dumyati G.,University of Rochester | And 5 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Currently, no single U.S. surveillance system can provide estimates of the burden of all types of health care-associated infections across acute care patient populations. We conducted a prevalence survey in 10 geographically diverse states to determine the prevalence of health care-associated infections in acute care hospitals and generate updated estimates of the national burden of such infections. METHODS: We defined health care-associated infections with the use of National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. One-day surveys of randomly selected inpatients were performed in participating hospitals. Hospital personnel collected demographic and limited clinical data. Trained data collectors reviewed medical records retrospectively to identify health care-associated infections active at the time of the survey. Survey data and 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample data, stratified according to patient age and length of hospital stay, were used to estimate the total numbers of health care-associated infections and of inpatients with such infections in U.S. acute care hospitals in 2011. RESULTS: Surveys were conducted in 183 hospitals. Of 11,282 patients, 452 had 1 or more health care-associated infections (4.0%; 95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 4.4). Of 504 such infections, the most common types were pneumonia (21.8%), surgical-site infections (21.8%), and gastrointestinal infections (17.1%). Clostridium difficile was the most commonly reported pathogen (causing 12.1% of health care-associated infections). Device-associated infections (i.e., central-catheter-associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and ventilator- associated pneumonia), which have traditionally been the focus of programs to prevent health care-associated infections, accounted for 25.6% of such infections. We estimated that there were 648,000 patients with 721,800 health care-associated infections in U.S. acute care hospitals in 2011. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this multistate prevalence survey of health care-associated infections indicate that public health surveillance and prevention activities should continue to address C. difficile infections. As device- and procedure-associated infections decrease, consideration should be given to expanding surveillance and prevention activities to include other health care-associated infections. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Patel B.B.,Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Holland N.W.,Emory University
Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common heterogeneous syndrome that in some cases is transitional between normal age-related cognitive changes and dementia. Identifying it early may lead to prompt recognition of reversible causes and allows for timely future planning. This article describes definitions of MCI and its evaluation, differential diagnosis, and management.

Echt K.V.,Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2010

Over 35 years (1962-1996), participants of the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS), a study of healthy aging in men, completed up to eight audiometric assessments. This report describes the age-related hearing trajectories of screened men (n=953) aged 23 to 81 years at enrollment, estimates the typical rate of change per decade in hearing sensitivity, and compares longitudinal and cross-sectional estimates of change in hearing sensitivity. The men were followed 14 years on average. The hearing trajectories, based on a mixed-effects model analytical approach to the data, provide converging evidence that hearing loss in aging is pervasive and progressive even among men initially selected for good physical health. Typically the men accrued early losses (>25 dB HL) in hearing sensitivity at the higher frequencies beginning in the early 40s, but maintained hearing thresholds better than 25 dB HL for lower frequencies into old age. The average rate of change per year across frequencies and age was 0.69 dB. Predicted cross-sectional estimates of change in hearing sensitivity reliably approximated longitudinal trajectories, with slight misestimations in the 8th decade.

Chen S.C.,Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Chen S.C.,Emory University
Dermatologic Clinics | Year: 2012

Health-related quality of life (QoL) is a patient-reported outcome that describes the impact of the disease in question to all aspects of persons' life, including psychosocial, emotional, physical, and functional impact. As such, health-related QoL is particularly relevant in conditions that have no physical signs and need to rely on patient reports to know whether they are improving or not. Work is beginning in pruritus to develop instruments that can measure pruritus-related QoL. This article reviews the instruments that have been developed and used in pruritus and also reviews the literature regarding the impact of pruritus on QoL. © 2012.

Bremner J.D.,Emory University | Bremner J.D.,Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Shearer K.D.,University of Aberdeen | McCaffery P.J.,University of Aberdeen
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Objective: Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid), approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acne, carries a black box warning related to the risk of depression, suicide, and psychosis. Retinoic acid, the active form of vitamin A, regulates gene expression in the brain, and isotretinoin is its 13-cis isomer. Retinoids represent a group of compounds derived from vitamin A that perform a large variety of functions in many systems, in particular the central nervous system, and abnormal retinoid levels can have neurologic effects. Although infrequent, proper recognition and treatment of psychiatric side effects in acne patients is critical given the risk of death and disability. This article reviews the evidence for isotretinoin's relationships with depression and suicidality. Data Sources: The PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and PubMed searchable database indexes were searched for articles published in the English language from 1960 to June 2010 using the key words isotretinoin, retinoids, retinoic acid, depression, depressive disorders, and vitamin A. Evidence examined includes (1) case reports; (2) temporal association between onset of depression and exposure to the drug; (3) challengerechallenge cases; (4) class effect (other compounds in the same class, like vitamin A, having similar neuropsychiatric effects); (5) dose response; and (6) biologically plausible mechanisms. Study Selection: All articles in the literature related to isotretinoin, depression, and suicide were reviewed, as well as articles related to class effect, dose response, and biologic plausibility. Data Extraction: Information from individual articles in the literature was extracted, including number of episodes of depression, suicidality, suicide, psychosis, violence and aggression, past psychiatric history, time of onset in relation to isotretinoin usage, medication dosage, duration of treatment, and dechallenge and challenge history. Results: The literature reviewed is consistent with associations of isotretinoin administration with depression and with suicide in a subgroup of vulnerable individuals. Conclusions: The relationship between isotretinoin and depression may have implications for a greater understanding of the neurobiology of affective disorders. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

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