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Smith D.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Smith T.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Chiarello M.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Ho A.,Atkins
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Bridge Engineering | Year: 2011

The Dubai Metro light-rail scheme is a flagship project in the United Arab Emirates and the longest fully automated rail system in the world. The first line of the rail system was opened in September 2009 with a second line due for completion in 2010. These first two lines include 35 elevated stations along their combined 76 km length. This paper describes the design and construction of the steel truss footbridges developed as part of the station context planning work for all of the elevated stations. The footbridges are all fully enclosed, air-conditioned corridors with the widths of many dictated by the provision of automated walkways. A key aspect to the footbridge design concept was to develop a modular system that could be rapidly designed for scores of differing span arrangements to be suitable for each unique location. Several of the footbridge truss elements comprised structural hollowsections, and the new rules in Eurocode 3 were adopted to design many of the connections between such members. With simply supported spans up to 45m long and external cladding creating irregular shaped cross-sections, wind tunnel testing was required to demonstrate aerodynamic stability of the footbridges. Several erection methods were also considered to minimise the installation time of completed footbridge spans over the major Dubai highways, and the pre-camber and deflection analysis associated with the methods adopted for lifting were also important aspects considered in the design. Other critical design issues resolved included the design of fillet-welded connections in place of full-strength full-penetration butt welds and the design of several special spans for connecting into non-standard stations and entrance structures.

Das S.C.,International Design Hub | Pouya H.S.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Ganjian E.,Coventry University
Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials | Year: 2011

Corrosion is a worldwide problem and costs billions of pounds. The corrosion problem is not something new but awareness of the problem in association with civil engineering structures, particularly reinforced/prestressed concrete highway bridges, multi-storey car parks and buildings, is relatively new. Corrosion is insidious in nature and the corrosion of steel in concrete is only apparent when it is quite advanced and manifests itself progressively in the formof 'rust' stains, cracking, delamination and finally spalling with exposed and corroding steel reinforcement. The proper application of available science and technology can save a large amount of waste due to corrosion. Over the last two decades a number of corrosion mitigation techniques have been developed. Some are more successful than others. Cathodic protection is the only proven technique for stopping the corrosion of steel in chloride-contaminated concrete.

Hendy C.R.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Chakrabarti S.,Atkins Highways and Transportation
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Bridge Engineering | Year: 2014

The Midland Links motorway viaducts, carrying the M5 and M6 around Birmingham, UK have been subject to a regular programme of assessment, repair and strengthening since 1989, after corrosion problems, primarily due to chloride contamination, were first detected in 1979. A number of the longer spans comprise multiple steel and concrete composite box girders and some of these superstructures are supported by steel box girder cross-beams. Assessment showed areas of very high overstress in the web plate at the locations of internal bracings. These overstresses affected ultimate, serviceability and fatigue limit states and arose because of poor detailing of the cross-braces and stiffeners. Acoustic emission sensors were installed to determine if the predicted fatigue activity was actually occurring and elastic shell finite-element (FE) modelling was undertaken for an improved determination of stresses. Plastic redistribution was considered to demonstrate adequate ultimate limit state (ULS) performance and an analysis was undertaken with potential fatigue damage modelled to prove the structure would not collapse with such damage at the ULS. In situ strain monitoring was undertaken to calibrate the FE results, improve the predicted fatigue life and allow preparation of a long-term strategy for managing and monitoring fatigue activity using a damage tolerant approach.

Mitchell R.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Smith D.A.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Dolling C.,British Constructional Steelwork Association Ltd.
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Bridge Engineering | Year: 2011

The switch to Eurocodes from April 2010 requires the development and updating of many existing design tools. For many years Corus, and British Steel before them, have published preliminary design charts for steel-concrete composite highway bridges as part of their suite of design guidance for bridge engineers. These charts were originally developed using BS 5400 and the Highways Agency's design manual for roads and bridges. This paper describes the development of a new set of charts based on the structural Eurocodes. The new charts take advantage of benefits in efficiency permitted by the Eurocodes and also extend the scope of the original charts. The process adopted to generate the data for the charts is described and the key differences between the BS 5400 design approach and the Eurocode approach are discussed. © 2011 ICE Publishing: All rights reserved.

Sandberg J.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Hendy C.R.,Atkins Highways and Transportation
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Bridge Engineering | Year: 2010

The bridge discussed in this paper was completed in 1985 and is part of a vital sea crossing. The main cable-stayed bridge has a span of 225 m with side spans of 107?5 m. The bridge carries two three-lane carriageways. The bridge cables comprise lengths of coupled high-yield bars within a grouted steel tube. An assessment of the structure in 1996-1999, using modern design standards, identified large overstress in the shortest cables anchored close to the pylons. Other cables were also found to be overstressed, but to a lesser degree. Bearings were thus installed at the piers to relieve load from the shortest cables and the second shortest sets of cables were replaced. An acoustic monitoring system was also installed on all cables to detect any problems. Since then, two bar breaks were detected in other cables, which have been replaced. Inspection and testing showed fatigue of the couplers to be responsible for the breaks. Following the first bar break detected in December 2004, an additional assessment was completed by Atkins. This paper describes the assessment of the bridge cables, examines the consequences of cable failure and discusses the reasons why the decision to replace all the cable stays was made. It also describes the specification for the new replacement stay system and its advantages over the old system.

Hendy C.R.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Sandberg J.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Shetty N.K.,Atkins Rail
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Bridge Engineering | Year: 2011

The new structural Eurocodes offer increased economy in design over most existing codes of practice. However, the assessment of existing structures is specifically outside the scope of the Eurocodes, so many of the benefits these new codes bring cannot be directly applied when reviewing old structures. This paper investigates the areas where the steel and concrete Eurocodes give increased resistances compared to existing codes and makes recommendations for sections that could be directly applied to the assessment of existing structures. Areas where the Eurocodes cannot be applied directly to existing structures are also identified, together with the reasons why, such as reliance on modern material and execution specifications. Recommendations are then made for how the Eurocode design rules could be modified for assessment situations, including the use of measured strengths and imperfections in calculation. Actions and the format for combining actions are also investigated and recommendations are made for modifications to these aspects for use in assessing bridges. Finally, an overall assessment of the scope of work required to produce an assessment suite of Eurocodes is made.

Smith N.,Atkins Highways and Transportation
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Bridge Engineering | Year: 2012

In accordance with BD12/01, end treatments to corrugated steel culverts have to be designed to support the face edges of the steel where it is unable to act in ring compression. One suitable form of end treatment is a reinforced concrete collar beam. A literature review prior to the design of Smallways North Bridge revealed that no specific guidance exists for the design of such collar beams, neither in standards nor in literature published by suppliers of corrugated steel culverts. The purpose of this paper is therefore to outline one potential means of designing such elements by studying the design of Smallways North Bridge.

Hendy C.R.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Sandberg J.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Iles D.,Steel Construction Institute
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Bridge Engineering | Year: 2013

Deck slabs in ladder decks span longitudinally between transverse cross-girders and the primary function of these cross-girders is to support the deck slab. The girders may, however, need to perform the secondary function of preventing the slab from buckling in compression. The concrete deck slab of a ladder deck can have a very large transverse span between main girders. This large unsupported width can lead to buckling of the slab in compression unless it is prevented from doing so by transverse girders. If the spacing of the cross-girders is large, it is still possible for second-order bending moments to develop in the slab under the effects of global compression. This paper sets out guidance on the limiting spacing of main girders and cross-girders to avoid consideration of second-order effects and also the means of determining second-order effects in slabs and cross-girders when this becomes necessary.

Hendy C.R.,Atkins Highways and Transportation | Spencer P.C.,Highways and Transportation | Sundaram M.,Atkins Highways and Transportation
Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Management, Procurement and Law | Year: 2013

Within the civil engineering industry there are numerous methods of communicating knowledge. These include formal methods, such as through peer-reviewed papers, conferences and websites, and informal methods such as new teams coming together and sharing their experiences. However, knowledge management is more than just communicating lessons; it involves the creation, capture, sharing and leveraging of knowledge and, without all these aspects present is unlikely to be effective. Capturing all useful knowledge in a project life cycle and cascading the lessons learnt to industry, and indeed within organisations, presents a significant challenge to achieve consistently. This paper presents a tried-and-tested solution which employs a named individual on each project, the knowledge capture coordinator, in conjunction with a framework of technical, discipline-led, networks. In essence, the knowledge capture coordinator is responsible for capturing learning on the project and feeding past learning into the start of the project, while the technical networks review, develop and validate the learning captured and ensure it is subsequently available and communicated in the most appropriate manner to all who need to know. This paper discusses in detail how this is achieved and elaborates on the role of the KCC and networks in driving continuous improvement. It is based on a process employed within the Highways and Transportation business of Atkins.

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