Ristaino J.B.,ate University |
Hu C.H.,ate University |
Fitt B.D.L.,Rothamsted Research |
Fitt B.D.L.,University of Hertfordshire
Plant Pathology | Year: 2013
Late blight remained a significant disease for potato growers in Europe long after the famine of the 1840s. Of the four mitochondrial haplotypes of Phytophthora infestans, only the Ia mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype has been identified previously in infected potato leaves from famine-era herbarium specimens collected in England, Ireland and Europe in the 19th century. Long-term soil fertility experiments were conducted on potato between 1876 and 1901 in Rothamsted to investigate effects of combinations of organic manures and mineral fertilizers on disease and yield. This report identifies for the first time the same Ia mtDNA haplotype of P. infestans in three diseased tubers from 1877 from the long-term Rothamsted trials, thus providing the earliest evidence of the presence of the founder Ia mtDNA haplotype of P. infestans in potato tubers in England. Soil amendments had a significant impact on disease and yield. A real-time PCR assay was used to detect and quantify P. infestans in tubers. The level of pathogen DNA was greatest in tubers from highest yielding plots that received combinations of inorganic nitrogenous and mineral fertilizers and least in tubers from plots with organic farmyard manures or non-nitrogenous mineral fertilizers. The Ia mtDNA haplotype was also confirmed from diseased potato leaves during the same time period. Thus, the founder Ia mtDNA haplotype survived in potato tubers after 1846 and was present over 30years later in the UK. © 2012 BSPP.
Rashmi,Siddaganga Institute of Technology |
Shivakumar K.N.,ate University
International Journal of Materials Research | Year: 2013
Polymer nanocomposites were prepared by mixing Epoxy resin with 2, 5 and 7 wt.% of organically modified montmorillonite clay using a high shear mixer. Microstructural analysis of the nanocomposites was performed with transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of voltage, frequency, temperature and seawater ageing on electrical conductivity and impedance of the nanocomposites were evaluated. The transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction results indicate that montmorillonite clay nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed in the Epoxy matrix. Experimental results show higher conductivity and lower impedance with the addition of 2 wt.% montmorillonite clay in the Epoxy matrix with respect to frequency, temperature and seawater ageing. On the other hand, with further increase in filler loading (5 and 7 wt.%) a reverse trend was observed with respect to conductivity and impedance. The obtained values of capacitance and resistance were found to be well correlated. © 2013 Carl Hanser Verlag.
Kasanaboina P.K.,North Carolina A&T State University |
Ojha S.K.,North Carolina A&T State University |
Sami S.U.,&ate University |
Lewis Reynolds C.,North Carolina State University |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2016
GaAs/GaAsSb nanowire (NW) arrays are ideally suited to meet the demands of the next generation infrared (IR) photodetectors with potential for improving detection. NWs in a core–shell geometry have the advantage of providing axial direction for a long optical path for enhanced optical absorption and a short radial path for charge diffusion and collection. For the Ga-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth of vertical, dense and uniform GaAs core NWs on Si (111), the effects of substrate surface preparation in combination with growth parameter variation were examined. On the epiready substrate without any surface preparation, both initial Ga shutter opening duration and V/III beam equivalent pressure ratio play a vital role in achieving almost all vertical NWs with moderate density ~107 cm−2. Also the spatial uniformity of the NWs was poor. Substrate surface preparation by chemical cleaning followed by oxidation in air led to highly vertical and uniform NWs with high density (8 × 108 cm−2). The GaAsSb shell was then successfully grown around the highly dense and vertical core GaAs NWs at growth temperatures ranging from 550°C to 590°C. It was found that growth temperature has a strong influence on Sb incorporation in the NWs and, hence, the NW morphology and 4K photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The presence of x-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to (111) reflection only and its higher-order reflections attest to the vertical alignment of NWs. Strain in the NWs as estimated using the Williamson–Hall isotropic strain model increases with Sb incorporation, which results in bending of the NWs with increasing Sb. Structural properties of these NWs using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) are also presented. The temperature dependence PL of the NWs exhibited “S-curve” behavior, which is a well-known signature of localized excitons and a room temperature band edge PL emission occurring at ~1.3 μm. © 2016 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society
Chartier T.P.,Davidson College |
Ellison V.,ate University |
Langville A.N.,College of Charleston
4OR | Year: 2014
This paper presents a multi-objective linear integer program that assigns student volunteers to present lectures at participating classes in local schools. A student’s class assignment is based upon his or her availability to teach at that time as well as several additional factors including student preferences regarding commuting and partners as well as the institution’s goal of creating diverse student groups. This case study shows that the proposed mathematical program dramatically improves the assignments of students to classes and provides increased flexibility for modeling other goals and factors in future years. In addition, this multi-phase model can be applied in other contexts, such as crew scheduling or the scheduling of parallel sessions of large conferences. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Gong Y.,Henan Polytechnic University |
Liu L.,ate University
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010
A generalized component modal analytical method for space mega frames of super tall buildings is developed. The components used herein are not the actual components, but they are conceptual ones. They are actually the nodal lines employed to discretize the computational model of the structure, a three dimensional model with continuously distributed mass and stiffness. One-variable functions defined on the nodal lines selected by the analyst are unknown functions (eigenfunctions) employed to describe the behavior of the model. By a Hamiltonian principle, the governing equations of the modal analysis can be obtained, which are a set of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) of the eigenfunctions with their corresponding boundary conditions. The desired eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions (eigenmode) can be obtained by numerically solving the system of ODEs with boundary conditions. The method is applied to the space-mega-frame system of super tall buildings. The results from the illustration example show that the method is rational and powerful for the modal analysis of space-mega-frame systems. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
Enneking S.A.,Purdue University |
Cheng H.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Jefferson-Moore K.Y.,ate University |
Einstein M.E.,Purdue University |
And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012
Osteoporosis, a progressive decrease in mineralized structural bone, causes 20 to 35% of all mortalities in caged White Leghorn hens. Previous research has focused on manipulating the egg laying environment to improve skeletal health, with little research on the pullet. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of perch access on pullet health, bone mineralization, muscle deposition, and stress in caged White Leghorns. From 0 to 17 wk of age, half of the birds were placed in cages with 2 round metal perches, while the other half did not have perches (controls). Bone mineralization and bone size traits were determined in the tibia, femur, sternum, humerus, ulna, radius, and phalange (III carpometacarpal) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Muscle weights were obtained for the breast and left leg (drum and thigh). A sample of pullets from each cage was evaluated for foot health, BW, right adrenal weight, and packed cell volume. Most measurements were taken at 3, 6, and 12 wk of age. Access to perches did not affect breast muscle weight, percentage breast muscle, percentage leg muscle, bone mineral density, bone length, bone width, adrenal weight, packed cell volume, and hyperkeratosis of the foot-pad and toes. There were no differences in BW, bone mineral content, and leg muscle weight at 3 and 6 wk of age. However, at 12 wk of age, BW (P = 0.025), bone mineral content of the tibia, sternum, and humerus (P = 0.015), and the left leg muscle weight (P = 0.006) increased in pullets with access to perches as compared with controls. These results suggest that perch access has beneficial effects on pullet health by stimulating leg muscle deposition and increasing the mineral content of certain bones without causing a concomitant decrease in bone mineral density. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Meyers S.L.,ate University |
Jennings K.M.,ate University |
Monks D.W.,ate University
Weed Technology | Year: 2012
Studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to determine the effect of S-metolachlor rate and application time on sweetpotato cultivar injury and storage root shape under conditions of excessive moisture at the time of application. S-metolachlor at 1.1, 2.2, or 3.4 kg ai ha -1 was applied immediately after transplanting or 2 wk after transplanting (WATP) to 'Beauregard', 'Covington', 'DM02-180', 'Hatteras', and 'Murasaki-29' sweetpotato. One and three d after S-metolachlor application plots received 1.9 cm rainfall or irrigation. S-metolachlor applied immediately after transplanting resulted in increased sweetpotato stunting 4 and 12 WATP, decreased no. 1 and marketable sweetpotato yields, and decreased storage root length to width ratio compared with the nontreated check. Sweetpotato stunting, no. 1 and marketable yields, and storage root length to width ratio in treatments receiving S-metolachlor 2 WATP were similar to the nontreated check. In 2008, Covington and Hattaras stunting 12 WATP was greater at 2.2 and 3.4 kg ha -1 (11 to 16) than 1.1 kg ha -1 (1 to 2). In 2009, S-metolachlor at 3.4 kg ha -1 was more injurious 4 WATP than 2.2 kg ha -1 and 1.1 kg ha -1. While cultivar by treatment interactions did exist, injury, yield, and storage root length to width ratio trends were similar among all cultivars used in this study. Nomenclature: S-metolachlor; sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas L. Lam. 'Beauregard', 'Covington', 'DM02-180', 'Hatteras', and 'Murasaki-29'.
Shendokar S.,College of Engineering, Pune |
Kelkar A.,&ate University |
Bolick R.,&ate University
Proceedings of the International Conference on Nanoscience, Engineering and Technology, ICONSET 2011 | Year: 2011
Delamination is a major mode of failure in laminated composites. This paper addresses development of advanced delamination resistant composites using interlaminar SiO 2 nanofibers. The SiO 2 nanofibers were manufactured using Tetra Ethyl Orthosilicate (TEOS) sol gel. The sol gel viscosity of 100-200 cps Voltage of 18kV and distance between spinneret and grounded collector plate of 80 mm were found to be suitable for maximizing production of electrospun fibers. It was observed that typical electrospun fibers were of 300 nm diameter after they were sintered at 600 degrees C. These SiO 2 nanofibers produced using electrospinning were then integrated into fiber glass Epon 862 resin matrix composites. During mechanical characterization of these three phase (fiber glass+Epon 862+SiO 2 nanofibers) composites, extensive experimentation was carried out as per the ASTM D 5528 standard to study the influence of electrospun SiO 2 nanofibers on the Mode I fracture toughness of fiber glass composites. Other characterization studies were related to determining the effect of SiO 2 nanofibers on short beam shear strength, flexure properties, and tensile properties of three phase composites. © 2011 IEEE.
Kononchik J.P.,ate University |
Hernandez R.,ate University |
Brown D.T.,ate University
Virology Journal | Year: 2011
The study of alphavirus entry has been complicated by an inability to clearly identify a receptor and by experiments which only tangentially and indirectly examine the process, producing results that are difficult to interpret. The mechanism of entry has been widely accepted to be by endocytosis followed by acidification of the endosome resulting in virus membrane-endosome membrane fusion. This mechanism has come under scrutiny as better purification protocols and improved methods of analysis have been brought to the study. Results have been obtained that suggest alphaviruses infect cells directly at the plasma membrane without the involvement of endocytosis, exposure to acid pH, or membrane fusion. In this review we compare the data which support the two models and make the case for an alternative pathway of entry by alphaviruses. © 2011 Kononchik et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
PubMed | &ate University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular bioSystems | Year: 2016
Protein hydroxylation is an emerging posttranslational modification involved in both normal cellular processes and a growing number of pathological states, including several cancers. Protein hydroxylation is mediated by members of the hydroxylase family of enzymes, which catalyze the conversion of an alkyne group at select lysine or proline residues on their target substrates to a hydroxyl. Traditionally, hydroxylation has been identified using expensive and time-consuming experimental methods, such as tandem mass spectrometry. Therefore, to facilitate identification of putative hydroxylation sites and to complement existing experimental approaches, computational methods designed to predict the hydroxylation sites in protein sequences have recently been developed. Building on these efforts, we have developed a new method, termed RF-hydroxysite, that uses random forest to identify putative hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline residues in proteins using only the primary amino acid sequence as input. RF-Hydroxysite integrates features previously shown to contribute to hydroxylation site prediction with several new features that we found to augment the performance remarkably. These include features that capture physicochemical, structural, sequence-order and evolutionary information from the protein sequences. The features used in the final model were selected based on their contribution to the prediction. Physicochemical information was found to contribute the most to the model. The present study also sheds light on the contribution of evolutionary, sequence order, and protein disordered region information to hydroxylation site prediction. The web server for RF-hydroxysite is available online at .