Atbara Veterinary Research Laboratory

Atbara, Sudan

Atbara Veterinary Research Laboratory

Atbara, Sudan

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Salih D.A.,Research Center Borstel | Salih D.A.,Kassala Veterinary Research Laboratory KVRL | Ali A.M.,Research Center Borstel | Ali A.M.,University of Khartoum | And 9 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the diagnosis of Theileria lestoquardi infection. The primers were designed based on the clone-5 sequence of T. lestoquardi. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were established. Analysis of the specificity showed that the selected LAMP primers amplified the target sequence from T. lestoquardi DNA successfully, while no amplification was seen with DNA from Theileria annulata, Theileria ovis, Babesia ovis, Anaplasma ovis, or ovine genomic DNA. The specificity of the LAMP product was further confirmed by restriction digestion and sequencing. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was analyzed in comparison to PCR resulting in a detection limit of 10 fg/μl of plasmid DNA containing the clone-5 sequence. The suitability for utilizing the LAMP assay in the field for the diagnosis of T. lestoquardi infection was tested on 100 field samples collected in Sudan and compared with results obtained by PCR. The relative specificity and sensitivity of the established LAMP assay was determined to be 92.1% and 87.5%, respectively, indicating that it may be regarded as an alternative molecular diagnostic tool to PCR which could be used for epidemiological surveys on T. lestoquardi infection. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Saeed I.K.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory | Ali Y.H.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory | AbdulRahman M.B.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory | Mohammed Z.A.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2015

This study was intended to determine the role played by peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in causing respiratory infections in camels and its association with other respiratory viruses. A total of 474 lung specimens showing pneumonia were collected from clinically healthy camels in slaughterhouses at five different areas in Sudan. Using immunocapture ELISA (IcELISA), 214 specimens (45.1 %) were found to be positive for PPR antigen. The highest prevalence was found in central Sudan (59.9 %) then northern Sudan (56.6 %) and eastern Sudan (26.6 %). Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV 3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), and adenovirus were detected in 4.4, 2.9, 2.0, 9.0, and 1.3 % of the specimens, respectively. PPR antigen was found in about 50 % of specimens that showed positive result for other viral antigens. Twenty-five of 28 BVD, 15 of 16 PIV3, 8 of 12 RSV, 4 of 4 adenovirus, and 4 of 5 BHV-1 were found in association with other respiratory antigens. Results revealed the existence of PPRV infection in dromedary camels in Sudan and present evidence for mixed virus infection, suggesting that respiratory infections in camels might be exacerbated by PPRV. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Intisar K.S.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory | Ali Y.H.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory | Khalafalla A.I.,University of Khartoum | Mahasin E.A.R.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

The role of pestivirus particularly bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in causing respiratory infections in camels was studied in four different localities in Sudan. The evaluation was carried out using ELISA, and positive specimens were further tested using direct fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for confirmation. The overall detected seroprevalence of BVD in camel sera was 84.6% with the highest prevalence in Western Sudan (92.5%) and with most of positives showing 2+ and 3+ titer. Out of 186 lung specimens examined for BVDV antigen, 13 were found positive (7%) with the highest prevalence in Central Sudan. All ELISA-positive specimens were positive using FAT and RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the detection of BVDV antigen and antibodies in camels in Sudan. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kwiatek O.,Control of Exotic and Emerging Animal Diseases | Ali Y.H.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Saeed I.K.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratories | Khalafalla A.I.,University of Khartoum | And 12 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Interest in peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has been stimulated by recent changes in its host and geographic distribution. For this study, biological specimens were collected from camels, sheep, and goats clinically suspected of having PPRV infection in Sudan during 2000-2009 and from sheep soon after the first reported outbreaks in Morocco in 2008. Reverse transcription PCR analysis confirmed the wide distribution of PPRV throughout Sudan and spread of the virus in Morocco. Molecular typing of 32 samples positive for PPRV provided strong evidence of the introduction and broad spread of Asian lineage IV. This lineage was defined further by 2 subclusters; one consisted of camel and goat isolates and some of the sheep isolates, while the other contained only sheep isolates, a finding with suggests a genetic bias according to the host. This study provides evidence of the recent spread of PPRV lineage IV in Africa.

Ahmed B.M.,Nile Valley University | Taha K.M.,Atbara Veterinary Research Laboratory | Enan K.A.,Central Laboratory | Elfahal A.M.,Central Laboratory | El Hussein A.R.M.,Animal Resources Research Corporation
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Malignant ovine theileriosis caused by Theileria lestoquardi is an economically important disease infecting small ruminants in the Sudan. The disease causes massive losses among sheep in many regions of Northern Sudan. The present studies were done to isolate lymphoblastiod cells infected with malignant ovine theileriosis and attenuate them by passage using culture media to develop and produce schizonts candidate vaccine, then test its efficacy and safety by exposing immunized lambs to field challenge in an area endemic with T. lestoquardi. In the present experiments we isolated and established an in vitro culture of T. lestoquardi infected lymphoblast cell line. Long-term culture of T. lestoquardi infected lymphoplastoid cells was shown to result in attenuation of their virulence and lambs inoculated with different doses of such cells at passage 105 exhibited very mild reactions with fever that lasted for 1-5 days and parasitaemia of <0.2%. The experimental lambs immunized with this candidate vaccine were immune and protected when exposed to field challenge in an area endemic of ovine theileriosis, while morbidity and mortality among non-immunized animals reached 76.9% and 46.15%, respectively, and they exhibited the clinical signs of malignant ovine theileriosis that included, high fever, loss of appetite, enlargement of lymph nodes, jaundice, loss of weight and death. The present study demonstrates the efficacy and the safety of this attenuated cell line as a live attenuated candidate vaccine. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Intisar K.S.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory | Ali Y.H.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory | Khalafalla A.I.,University of Khartoum | Taha K.M.,Atbara Veterinary Research Laboratory | Rahman M.E.A.,Central Veterinary Research Laboratory
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2010

The incidence of adenovirus type 3 infections in camels in Sudan was studied. Lungs of Camel with pneumonia lungs (n = 239) were collected from slaughter houses at four different areas in Sudan. Adenovirus type 3 antigen was detected in 1.3% of 239 tested camel lungs by the use of sandwich ELISA. Specimens from Northern (3.3%) and Central Sudan (1.2%) were found to be positives. Direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT) was used to confirm the adenovirus ELISA positives; all ELISA positives were found to be positive using FAT. Seroprevalence of adenovirus type 3 was investigated, camel sera (n = 260) were collected from the same areas in Sudan. Collected sera were examined for adenovirus antibodies using indirect ELISA. The overall detected seroprevalence was 90%; highest prevalence was in South Central (100%) then Western (94.3%) and Central Sudan (92.5%). The lowest seroprevalence was in Northern Sudan (80%). The most detected degree of positivity was +3 then +5. This represents the first report for the detection of adenovirus type 3 antigen and antibodies in camels in Sudan. It was noticed to cause pathologic effect in camel lungs. © 2010 Academic Journals.

PubMed | Atbara Veterinary Research Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research | Year: 2010

Monthly total body tick collections from 13-20 camels were conducted for 2 consecutive years (2000-2001) in Northern Sudan. Tick populations were correlated with locality, season, predeliction site, sex and coat colour. Hyalomma dromedarii was found to be the predominant (89%) tick species infesting the camels. Other tick species found in very low numbers were Hyalomma impeltatum (7.7%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (3.3%), Hyalomma truncatum (0.29%), Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (0.25%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (0.30%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (0.09%). Nymphs of the genus Hyalomma were collected in significant numbers. Adult ticks significantly preferred to attach to the lower parts of the camels body for feeding while the nymphs preferred the back of the animal. Female camels harboured more ticks than males while higher infestations were recorded on camels with a grey coat colour compared to those with a brown coat colour. Ticks were found on camels throughout the year and increased in numbers during March to October with a peak in September.

PubMed | Atbara Veterinary Research Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2010

Theileria-free Hyalomma anatolicum larvae were fed on a naturally infected sheep with Theileria lestoquardi. Resulting flat nymphs of the tick were able to transmit T. lestoquardi infection upon feeding to 3/3 susceptible sheep. Adults emerging from the same batch of larvae were also infective to 3/3 susceptible sheep when they had the infection during their larval feeding. Transmission of T. lestoquardi to sheep was confirmed through clinical monitoring, examination of blood and lymph node biopsy smears, serology using indirect immunoflourescent test, and molecular using polymerase chain reaction technique.

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