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Atak A.,Ataturk Horticultural Central Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Total world kiwifruit production outside China is currently 1,412,455 t, the total planted area is 98,656 ha, and the production area is increasing each year (FAO, 2012). Cultivation of kiwifruit started in Europe in the 1960s. Towards the end of last century, kiwifruit were introduced to Turkey by the Atatürk Central Horticultural Research Institute in Yalova. Since then, each year has seen increasing interest. Today, Turkey, in terms of kiwifruit plantings, is amongst the more important producers. But productivity is low as most orchards in Turkey are still young; total yields will increase rapidly in the next few years. Commercial orchards are generally A. Deliciosa 'Hayward' and cultivation of other species or cultivars is very limited. Especially in the northern part of Turkey, climatic conditions are suitable for kiwifruit. The two most common support systems are the T-bar and the pergola and these are used, with some modifications. Psa (Pseudomonas syringae pv. Actinidiae) is so far not a serious problem in Turkey but root rots and water-logging problems in heavy soils are very common, so ridge planting is widely used. Frost protection in the form of fogging is also beginning to be used at higher altitudes. In contrast to New Zealand, irrigation of kiwifruit in Turkey is essential and is commonly done by mini-sprinkler systems in the Marmara and the Central Black Sea Regions. In the past, there was little irrigation of orchards in the Eastern Black Sea Region, but more recently irrigation systems have been installed. Consumption of fresh kiwifruit is likely to increase as the Turkish kiwifruit industry develops. Kiwifruit producers in Turkey are organized into small producer associations. However, these have not yet combined to form a national association. Such a combined national organization would make it much easier to solve problems of production, storage, packaging and marketing of Turkish kiwifruit. Kiwifruit research in Turkey first began in the 1990s at the Yalova Atatürk Horticultural Central Research Institute. The number of kiwifruit-related research programmes is increasing each year. The studies so far have concentrated on rooting of cuttings, climate change-adaptation, packaging, cold storage and fruit quality issues. Source

Atak A.,Ataturk Horticultural Central Research Institute | Kahraman K.A.,Ataturk Horticultural Central Research Institute | Soylemezoglu G.,Ankara University
New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science | Year: 2014

Clonal selection is an important tool for grapevine genetic improvement and high-quality production. Clonal selection has been carried out for 70 yr in Turkey and is being continued with different grape cultivars and rootstocks. In this study, 16 clones belonging to nine grape cultivars were selected by the Atatürk Central Horticultural Research Institute for study over 3 yr. Vines were characterised using standard ampelographic descriptors and the data obtained were transformed into numerical scores for analysis of genetic similarity. Although all the clones studied could be uniquely identified, there was much less variation between clones of a particular cultivar than there was between cultivars. © 2013 The Royal Society of New Zealand. Source

Atak A.,Ataturk Horticultural Central Research Institute | Kaya E.,Ataturk Horticultural Central Research Institute
Research Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Turkish flora has approximately 12,000 plant taxons and 35% of them are known to be endemic. The herbaceous and woody forms of peony plants have been commonly used as ornamental plants and for medical purposes, especially in the far East, for many years. Herbaceous species with 12 taxons including 55 populations have been detected and collected from Turkey's flora since 2000. Then breeding programs started with interspecific crosses and some new hybrids were obtained. To achieve targeted results it is especially important to distinguish between the resulting herbaceous or woody structures of individuals. Therefore, the selected 10 SRAP primers were used to separate some woody and herbaceous peony hybrids and also standard peony cultivars from each other. Successful results were obtained with these SCAR primers. As a result of interspecific crosses the obtained herbaceous or tree structure of individuals that were most reliable, especially Me2+Em1 and Me8+Em2 primer pair combinations were derived from testing. Thus, they are the first hybrid plants with leaves and undesirable characteristics can be determined in those forms to be eliminated. Thus, targeted results have been obtained in a much shorter time while the ratio of peony breeding success has increased. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Goksel Z.,Ataturk Horticultural Central Research Institute | Atak A.,Ataturk Horticultural Central Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The kiwifruit is unique because of its high nutritional content, different flavours, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, phytochemicals and fibre content. In terms of nutrient content, the kiwifruit is amongst the richest fruits: it is also very valuable in terms of health. It is usually consumed fresh but in recent years along with increased production, industrial use is increasing. It is used in the canned food industry, for marmalades, fruit sauces and candies and for fruit juice concentrates, either separately or mixed with strawberries or apples. The fruit is also canned, dried, frozen, and used for the preparation of nectars. In addition, kiwifruit are used in the cosmetic industry for production of lip balm, aromas, soap, shampoo, shower gel, and other products. However, most kiwifruit are eaten fresh and only a small proportion of the crop is processed. There are several reasons why kiwifruit processing has not developed further. The main problem is the characteristics of the fresh fruit: the instability of these characteristics means that standard processing technologies cannot be used. New processing options that are now being tested by different researchers include low temperature extraction, hot air-vacuum drying, high-pressure processing, UV-treatment, pervaporation, and rapid sterilisation. In particular, different techniques are used to remove polyphenols from kiwifruit juices during processing and storage. The effects of these techniques on the preservation of the health attributes, especially those due to polyphenols, micronutrients, aroma and volatile compounds are being investigated. In this study, different processing studies conducted by different researchers in Turkey and the rest of the world are examined in detail as a guide to further work. Source

Atak A.,Ataturk Horticultural Central Research Institute | Yalcin T.,Ataturk Horticultural Central Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Kiwifruit cuttings are more difficult to root than cuttings of many other species. In this study the effects of different propagation units and media on the rooting of hardwood and softwood (green) cuttings of A. Deliciosa 'Hayward', the most common kiwifruit cultivar, were examined. Different propagation units (hotbed, multichamber pot) and rooting media (perlite, peat, cocopeat, cocopeat + perlite, and peat + perlite) were tested. Studies over two years showed that hot beds were better than multichamber pots for propagation, especially for hardwood cuttings, and that a cocopeat + perlite mixture was the best medium for rooting of both hardwood and softwood cuttings. The highest rooting rate (37.9%) was obtained in the hotbed with hardwood cuttings collected 15 February. Cocopeat was the best rooting medium (44.3%). For softwood cuttings the best results were obtained with multichamber pots (plastic vials) with perlite as the propagation medium. Source

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