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Turktas M.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Metin O.K.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Bastug B.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Ertugrul F.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2013

We investigated the phylogenetic relationships in Tulipa in Turkey using DNA sequences from the plastid trnL-trnF region and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. We generated trnL-trnF and nuclear ITS sequences for 11 Tulipa spp. from Turkey and compared the utility of trnL-trnF and ITS sequences for phylogenetic analysis. Neighbor-joining, Bayesian and maximum parsimony methods were implemented using the same matrices. Our study of Tulipa based on molecular data revealed congruent results with previous studies. Despite the relatively lower resolution of trnL-trnF than that of ITS, both sequence matrices generated similar results. Three clades were clearly distinguished, corresponding to subgenera Tulipa, Eriostemones and Orithyia. It is not fully resolved whether Clusianae should be recognized as a separate section of subgenus Tulipa or a distinct subgenus.© 2013 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013, 172, 270-279. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London.

Karakas Metin O.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Turktas M.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Turktas M.,Çankiri Karatekin University | Aslay M.,Erzincan Central Horticultural Research Station | Kaya E.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute
Turkish Journal of Biology | Year: 2013

In this study, the genetic relationships among 12 Fritillaria taxa collected from different regions of Turkey were investigated using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Seven primer pair combinations were used for the analysis. The neighbor-joining and principal coordinate analysis methods were implemented to identify the taxonomy of the species. The analyses generated congruent results with each other and with the previous studies. The neighbor-joining analysis clustered the species into 3 groups, while the principal coordinates analysis did not support separation of the third group. The subgenera Fritillaria and Petilium diverged from each other with strong support in all analyses. The neighbor-joining tree further divided the members of subgenus Fritillaria into 2 subgroups. Statistical analysis of the data set using NTSYS 2.1 showed a very good fit between the data matrix and the cophenetic matrix for the AFLP data with an r-value of 0.91. Generating a high polymorphic band profile, this analysis presented the feasibility of using AFLP for a genetic relationship analysis of Fritillaria. This primary report on AFLP analysis of Fritillaria species could facilitate achieving a deeper understanding of genetic relationships between the species. © TÜBİTAK.

Hanci F.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | Gokce A.F.,Nigde University
Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2016

In this study, molecular markers were used for the first time to study the genetic diversity of Turkish onion (Allium cepa L.) accessions. We used 83 turkish landraces, 3 breeding lines and 10 commercial varieties, in total 96 accessions, to study the genetic diversity. Bulked samples of 10 seeds were used to generate a representative profile of the accessions. Variability was evaluated at 46 microsatellite loci. We identified 308 alleles with these markers, out of which 303 were polymorphic. A dendrogram based on the UPGMA analysis grouped the 96 accessions into five main clusters. Dice’s similarity coefficient ranged from 0.407 to 0.767 with an average of 0.587. The results showed that 44 out of the 46 SSR markers were convenient and polymorphic enough to distinguish all the studied accessions. © 2016, Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

Turktas M.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Aslay M.,Erzincan Central Horticultural Research Station | Kaya E.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | Ertugrul F.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center
Turkish Journal of Biology | Year: 2012

The genus Fritillaria embraces about 165 taxa in the family Liliaceae. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships between 10 Fritillaria taxa were presented. Fritillaria spp. were collected from their natural habitats, and specimens with different morphological features were obtained via selective breeding. Specimens with the desired characters were presented as promising candidate cultivars for ornamental use. Phylogenetic analysis was based on DNA sequences of the chloroplast trnL-trnF region. The phylogeny was constructed using the neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. The data showed that the examined Fritillaria spp. were evidently diverged into 2 Fritillaria subgenera. Members of the subgenus Fritillaria formed one clade while the other clade contained the subgenera Theresia and Petilium. Separation within the latter clade was strongly supported with bootstrap values, whereas resolution within the subgenus Fritillaria remained ambiguous. This analysis revealed the feasibility of the chloroplast trnL-trnF region DNA sequence for phylogeny of the Fritillaria species. Our study is the first phylogenetic analysis in Fritillaria spp. based on the trnL-trnF region. Fingerprint data of these cultivars would be a valuable source for their identification and for the generation of new cultivars in future. © TÜBITAK.

Erturk U.,Uludag University | Akcay M.E.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca | Year: 2010

'Amasya' is a native and standard cultivar for commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) production in Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variability among some accessions of 'Amasya' apple cultivar. Ten 'Amasya' accessions, all selected from agronomic evaluations, and 'Granny Smith' (as control) were analyzed by RAPD marker technique. Of the total 441 RAPD loci that were amplified by 38 random primers, 180 were polymorphic with 39.98% diversity. Cluster analysis divided the apples into two major clusters; the first cluster involved 10 accessions of 'Amasya', and the second cluster comprised 'Granny Smith'.

Yavuz B.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | Arslan U.,Uludag University
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

Aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Capsicum annuum L. (pepper), Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower), Juglans regia L. (walnut), Sinapis arvensis L. (wild mustard) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato) were evaluated for antifungal activity against five economically important phytopathogenic fungi including Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr., Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Sacc., F. solani (Mart.) Sacc., Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. In general, the antifungal efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher than that of aqueous extracts. The percentage of mycelial growth inhibition ranged from 3.8 to 48.8% and 3.1 to 84.1% for aqueous and ethanol extracts, respectively. Ethanol extract of H. annuus at 10% concentration (w/v) showed the highest antifungal efficacy on mycelial growth of R. solani. The percentage of inhibition in spore germination ranged from 3.3 to 76.2% and 5.6 to 100% for aqueous and ethanol extracts, respectively. Ethanol extracts of H. annuus and S. arvensis at 5% concentration completely inhibited the spore germination and germ tube elongation of B. cinerea and F. culmorum except F. solani, which was the most resistant fungus at all experiments. Aqueous extract of S. arvensis at 10% concentration completely inhibited the mycelial growth of F. culmorum, M. phaseolina and R. solani in soil tests. In addition, soil tests used in this study are original and important to evaluate antifungal activity under conditions close to the natural environment. The results of this study indicate that ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of tested plants could become natural alternatives to synthetic fungicides for control of tested phytopathogenic fungi.

Hanci F.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | Cebeci E.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | Fidanci A.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute
Journal of Applied Horticulture | Year: 2016

Salinity is one of the major limitations for onion growth and productivity all over the world. There are several methods to determine salt stress tolerance of plants such as germination tests, pots trials, in vitro experiments etc. This study was conducted for optimisation of rapid and practical method to compare onion genotypes under salinity conditions. In the first stage of the study, three explant types and twenty one combinations of plant growth regulators were tested for optimization of callus protocol. Callus induction percentage (%), callus fresh weight (mg) and callus dry weight (mg) were measured on the 31st day. According to results, the best medium (MS + 2 mg/L 2,4-D + 0,5 mg/L BAP) and explant type (mature zygotic embryo) for the proliferation of callus were determined. After choosing the best hormone and explant type, the effect of salinity on callus induction was tested using different level of NaCl. 'Akgun-12' consistently performed the best in callus culture. Responses of onion cultivars were different for different parameters. The proposed method was simple to perform, as no long time is required, and offers a possibility to screen genotypes in any time of year.

Hanci F.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | Cebeci E.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of drought and salinity on four onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars (Texas Early Grano, Kantartopu-3, Besirli-77 and Akgun-12) in the early plant growth phase. Seeds were germinated in peat material. After 21 days of sowing, seedlings were transferred to plastic pots (1.6 L). The plants have been grown in vermiculite by “substrate culture” technique. After ten days of transplanting, irrigation was stopped gradually for drought stress. For this aim, three different levels of irrigation were used. (D0 was 90% of field capacity, D1 was 70% of field capacity, and D2 treatment was 40% of field capacity). In order to determination of effects of salinity on onion plants, 0. 50 mM and 125 mM NaCl were added to nutrition solution. To determine the effect of salinity and drought stress factors, tolerance indexes based on plant neck diameter (mm), leaf diameter (mm), plant length (cm), amount of leaves, leaf water potential (%) and waxy on leaves were measured as morphological parameters. At the same time, amount of proline, the concentrations of total chlorophyll (µg/ml), chlorophyll-a (µg/ml), chlorophyll-b (µg/ml) carotenoids (µg/ml) and chlorophyll-a/b were investigated as physiological parameters. Cultivars showed different responses to drought and salinity. The significant varietal differences were observed for the proline amount, chlorophyll-a, leaf water potential index and leaf amount under drought stress; and for the proline amount, chlorophyll-a and leaf diameter under salinity stress. © 2015, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.

Ozdemir Y.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | Aktepe Tangu N.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | Akcay M.E.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2013

In this research, 14 hybrid table olive genotypes were used as material which were harvested from Olive Breeding Parcels in Atatürk Central Horticultural Research Institute (Yalova/TURKEY) and their maturation index, oil content, fatty acid composition and omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio were evaluated. These genotypes were generated by crossing Gemlik, Manzanilla, Ascolana, Edinciksu, Uslu, and Tavşan yüreǧi olive cultivars during cross breeding studies of a national project. Oil was obtained from fruit of olive genotypes by cold pressing. Maturation index and oil content of genotypes were determined between 2.6-6.4 and 22.43-28.12 (%). Linolenic acid distributions in fatty acid composition of genotype's oil were detected between 0.5-1.33 (% in fatty acids). Some olive genotypes' oils had high linolenic characteristics that they have potential for supporting the necessary intake of omega-3. Also, some of them have had the desired omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio which were between 3.74 and 4.00. Practical applications: Olive oil is a traditional product of Mediterranean basin and commonly consumed all over the world. But there is a need to improve yield, quality and nutritional value of olive oil. For this reason, there breeding studies were conducted. One of them was carried out in Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute. Here domestic and foreign olive cultivars were crossed to generate new olive genotypes since 1990. This research aimed to determine the olive oil of these obtained olive genotypes which had higher oil and omega-3 content and lower omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio. Generating the high omega-3 content olive oil by cross breeding is one of the cheapest, simplest and most natural ways of obtaining omega-3 and delivering it to the consumer. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Szikriszt B.,Corvinus University of Budapest | Dogan A.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | Ercisli S.,Atatürk University | Akcay M.E.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2013

Self-incompatibility of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is controlled by the multiallelic S-locus. While many cultivars and wild accessions have been S-genotyped, only limited data are available on accessions native to the center of origin of this species. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the S-genotype of 11 landrace cultivars and 17 local genotypes selected from populations growing wild at the Black Sea coast. Eleven sweet cherries (S1-S7, S10, and S12-S14) and some wild cherries (S17-S19, S21/25, and S31) S-RNase alleles were detected. The results indicate that Turkish cultivars represent a broader gene pool as compared with international cultivars. A new (S37) and a doubtful allele (provisionally labelled as S7m) as well as the sour cherry S34-allele were identified in sweet cherry. These data and others (SSR variants within the S13-RNase introns) confirmed that allele pools of sweet and sour cherries in the Black Sea region are overlapping. A new cross-incompatibility group, XLV (S2S18), was also proposed. Allele-specific primers were designed for S17-S19, S21/25, S34, and S37. A phylogenetic analysis of the cherry S31-RNase and its trans-specific sister alleles reliably mirrored the assumed length of the time period after the divergence of species in the subgenera Cerasus and Prunophora. Most variations (insertions/deletions and single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in the S-RNase gene were silent and, hence, have not been exposed to natural selection. The results are discussed from the aspects of S-allele evolution and phylogenetic relationships among cherries and other Prunus species. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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