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Kōbe-shi, Japan

Osanai T.,Hirosaki University | Tanaka M.,Hirosaki University | Magota K.,Asubio Pharma | Tomita H.,Hirosaki University | Okumura K.,Hirosaki University
Diabetologia | Year: 2012

Aims/hypothesis: Despite advances in pharmacological treatments, diabetes with hypertension continues to be a major public health problem with high morbidity and mortality rates. We recently identified a circulating peptide coupling factor 6 (CF6), which binds to the plasma membrane ATP synthase (ecto-F 1F o complex), resulting in intracellular acidosis. We investigated whether overexpression of CF6 contributes to diabetes and hypertension by intracellular acidosis. Methods: Transgenic mice overexpressing CF6 (also known as ATP5J) were generated, and physiological, biochemical and molecular biology studies were performed. Results: CF6 overexpression elicited a sustained decrease in intracellular pH in tissues (aorta, kidney, skeletal muscle and liver, with the exception of adipose tissue) that express its receptor, the β-subunit of ecto-F 1F o complex. Consistent with the receptor distribution, phospho-insulin receptor β, phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity and the phospho-Akt1:total Akt1 ratio were all decreased in the skeletal muscle and the liver in transgenic compared with wild-type mice, resulting in a decrease of plasma membrane-bound GLUT4 and an increase in hepatic glucose production. Under a high-sucrose diet, transgenic mice had insulin resistance and mild glucose intolerance; under a high-salt diet, they had elevated blood pressure with increased renal RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 1 (RAC1)-GTP, which is an activator of mineralocorticoid receptor. Conclusions/interpretation: Through its action on the β-subunit of ecto-F 1F o complex, which results in intracellular acidosis, CF6 plays a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance and hypertension. This finding might advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying diabetes and hypertension, possibly also providing a novel therapeutic target against cardiovascular disease. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Suzuki A.,Hirosaki University | Osanai T.,Hirosaki University | Tanaka M.,Hirosaki University | Tomita H.,Hirosaki University | And 2 more authors.
Hypertension Research | Year: 2014

Vascular endothelial cells are exposed to an acidic pH, and CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is a key protective molecule against acidosis. We investigated the effect of coupling factor 6 (CF6), a novel proton import activator, on CXCR4 signaling and its molecular mechanism. CF6 decreased CXCR4 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a time-and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 or PP1, a specific c-Src inhibitor, attenuated the CF6-induced decrease in CXCR4 without affecting CF6-induced intracellular acidosis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that CF6 enhanced the interaction between HIF-1 and the CXCR4 promoter at the hypoxia response element. CF6 also enhanced protein-protein interactions between phospho-c-Src and histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), but did not affect the binding of HDAC3 to the CXCR4 promoter at the hypoxia response element. Apoptotic cells, as measured by an Annexin-V-FITC Propidium Iodide Kit, were increased by CF6 in normoxia and hypoxia at 24 h; however, this increase was abolished by pretreatment with either siRNA for HIF-1 or the CXCR4 ligand. The coronary arteries and perivascular tissues obtained from CF6-overexpressing transgenic mice showed a lower expression of CXCR4 in the heart, increased wall thickness and infiltration of CD16-positive, CD206-positive or apoptotic cells. CF6 decreases CXCR4 expression through both HIF-1-and c-Src-mediated mechanisms in vascular endothelial cells. Because CXCR4 has an important role in survival function, CF6 may have a role in the progression of arteriosclerosis via these complex mechanisms. © 2014 The Japanese Society of Hypertension. Source

Tohyama S.,Keio University | Tohyama S.,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science | Hattori F.,Keio University | Sano M.,Keio University | And 21 more authors.
Cell Stem Cell | Year: 2013

Heart disease remains a major cause of death despite advances in medical technology. Heart-regenerative therapy that uses pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a potentially promising strategy for patients with heart disease, but the inability to generate highly purified cardiomyocytes in sufficient quantities has been a barrier to realizing this potential. Here, we report a nongenetic method for mass-producing cardiomyocytes from mouse and human PSC derivatives that is based on the marked biochemical differences in glucose and lactate metabolism between cardiomyocytes and noncardiomyocytes, including undifferentiated cells. We cultured PSC derivatives with glucose-depleted culture medium containing abundant lactate and found that only cardiomyocytes survived. Using this approach, we obtained cardiomyocytes of up to 99% purity that did not form tumors after transplantation. We believe that our technological method broadens the range of potential applications for purified PSC-derived cardiomyocytes and could facilitate progress toward PSC-based cardiac regenerative therapy. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Wakao H.,Hokkaido University | Yoshikiyo K.,Asubio Pharma | Koshimizu U.,Asubio Pharma | Furukawa T.,Hokkaido University | And 19 more authors.
Cell Stem Cell | Year: 2013

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells play an important physiological role in host pathogen defense and may also be involved in inflammatory disorders and multiple sclerosis. The rarity and inefficient expansion of these cells have hampered detailed analysis and application. Here, we report an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based reprogramming approach for the expansion of functional MAIT cells. We found that human MAIT cells can be reprogrammed into iPSCs using a Sendai virus harboring standard reprogramming factors. Under T cell-permissive conditions, these iPSCs efficiently redifferentiate into MAIT-like lymphocytes expressing the T cell receptor Vα7.2, CD161, and interleukin-18 receptor chain α. Upon incubation with bacteria-fed monocytes, the derived MAIT cells show enhanced production of a broad range of cytokines. Following adoptive transfer into immunocompromised mice, these cells migrate to the bone marrow, liver, spleen, and intestine and protect against Mycobacterium abscessus. Our findings pave the way for further functional analysis of MAIT cells and determination of their therapeutic potential. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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