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Pires A.M.,Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam | Haberl F.,Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics | Zavlin V.E.,NASA | Motch C.,University of Strasbourg | And 2 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context. The group of seven thermally emitting isolated neutron stars (INSs) discovered by ROSAT and known as the "Magnificent Seven" (M7) is unique among the various neutron star populations. Crustal heating by means of magnetic field decay and an evolutionary link with magnetars may explain why these objects rotate more slowly and have higher thermal luminosities and magnetic field intensities than standard rotation-powered pulsars of similar age. Aims. The third brightest INS, RX J1605.3+3249, is the only object amidst the seven still lacking a detected periodicity. The source spectrum, while purely thermal with no significant magnetospheric emission, is complex and displays both narrow and broad absorption features that can potentially be used to constrain the surface component of the magnetic field, as well as the mass-to-radius ratio of the neutron star. Methods. We observed the source with the XMM-Newton Observatory for 60 ks aiming at unveiling the neutron star rotation rate and investigating its spectrum in detail. We confront our results with previous observations of the source and discuss its properties in the context of the M7 as a group and of the known population of Galactic INSs. Results. A periodic signal at P = 3.387864(16) s, most likely the neutron star spin period, is detected at the 4σ confidence level. The amplitude of the modulation was found to be energy dependent and is more significantly detected when the timing search is restricted to photons with energy higher than ~0.5 keV. The coherent combination of the new data with a past XMM-Newton EPIC-pn observation of the source constrains the pulsar spin-down rate at the 2σ confidence level, \hbox{$\dot{\nu}\sim-1.39\times10^{-13}$} Hz s-1, implying a dipolar magnetic field of Bdip ~ 7.4 × 1013 G. If confirmed, RX J1605.3+3249 would be the neutron star with the highest dipolar field amongst the M7. The spectrum of the source shows evidence of a cool blackbody component, as well as for the presence of two broad absorption features. Furthermore, high-resolution spectroscopy with the RGS cameras confirms the presence of a narrow absorption feature at energy ~0.57 keV in the co-added spectrum of the source, also seen in other thermally emitting isolated neutron stars. Conclusions. Phase-resolved spectroscopy, as well as a dedicated observing campaign aimed at determining a timing solution, will give invaluable constraints on the neutron star geometry and will allow one to confirm the high value of spin down, which would place the source closer to a magnetar than any other M7 INS. © 2014 ESO. Source

Mugrauer M.,Astrophysikalisches Institute und Universitats Sternwarte Jena
Astronomische Nachrichten

The Cassegrain-Teleskop-Kamera (CTK-II) and the Refraktor-Teleskop-Kamera (RTK) are two CCD-imagers which are operated at the 25 cm Cassegrain and 20cm refractor auxiliary telescopes of the University Observatory Jena. This article describes the main characteristics of these instruments. The properties of the CCD-detectors, the astrometry, the image quality, and the detection limits of both CCD-cameras, as well as some results of ongoing observing projects, carried out with these instruments, are presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Mugrauer M.,Astrophysikalisches Institute und Universitats Sternwarte Jena | Berthold T.,Sternwarte Sonneberg 4pi Systeme GmbH
Astronomische Nachrichten

The Schmidt-Teleskop-Kamera (STK) is a new CCD-imager, which is operated since begin of 2009 at the University Observatory Jena. This article describes the main characteristics of the new camera. The properties of the STK detector, the astrometry and image quality of the STK, as well as its detection limits at the 0.9 m telescope of the University Observatory Jena are presented. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Ginski C.,Sterrewacht Leiden | Schmidt T.O.B.,Hamburger Sternwarte | Schmidt T.O.B.,Astrophysikalisches Institute und Universitats Sternwarte Jena | Mugrauer M.,Astrophysikalisches Institute und Universitats Sternwarte Jena | And 5 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

The formation of massive planetary or brown dwarf companions at large projected separations from their host star is not yet well understood. In order to put constraints on formation scenarios, we search for signatures in the orbit dynamics of the systems. We are specifically interested in the eccentricities and inclinations since those parameters might tell us about the dynamic history of the systems and where to look for additional low-mass sub-stellar companions. For this purpose, we utilized VLT/NACO to take several well-calibrated high-resolution images of six target systems and analyse them together with available literature data points of those systems as well as Hubble Space Telescope archival data. We used a statistical least-squares Monte Carlo approach to constrain the orbit elements of all systems that showed significant differential motion of the primary star and companion. We show for the first time that the GQ Lup system shows significant change in both separation and position angle. Our analysis yields best-fitting orbits for this system, which are eccentric (e between 0.21 and 0.69), but cannot rule out circular orbits at high inclinations. Given our astrometry, we discuss formation scenarios of the GQ Lup system. In addition, we detected an even fainter new companion candidate to GQ Lup, which is most likely a background object. We also updated the orbit constraints of the PZ Tel system, confirming that the companion is on a highly eccentric orbit with e > 0.62. Finally, we show with a high significance, that there is no orbital motion observed in the cases of the DH Tau, HD 203030 and 1RXS J160929.1-210524 systems, and give the most precise relative astrometric measurement of the UScoCTIO 108 system to date. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Mugrauer M.,Astrophysikalisches Institute und Universitats Sternwarte Jena | Dincel B.,Astrophysikalisches Institute und Universitats Sternwarte Jena
Astronomische Nachrichten

We report on our follow-up spectroscopy of HD 1071478 B, a recently detected faint co-moving companion of the exoplanet host star HD 107148 A. The companion is separated from its primary star by about 35″ (or 1790 AU of projected separation) and its optical and near infrared photometry is consistent with a white dwarf, located at the distance of HD 107148 A. In order to confirm the white dwarf nature of the co-moving companion, we obtained follow-up spectroscopic observations of HD 107148 B with CAFOS at the CAHA 2.2 m telescope. According to our CAFOS spectroscopy HD 107148 B is a DA white dwarf with an effective temperature in the range between 5900 and 6400K. The properties of HD 107148 B can further be constrained with the derived effective temperature and the known visual and infrared photometry of the companion, using evolutionary models of DA white dwarfs. We obtain for HD 107148 B a mass of 0.56 ± 0.05 M⊙, a luminosity of (2.0 ± 0.2) × 10–4 L⊙, log g [cm s–2]) = 7.95 ± 0.09, and a cooling age of 2100 ± 270 Myr. With its white dwarf companion the exoplanet host star HD 107148 A forms an evolved stellar system, which hosts at least one exoplanet. So far, only few of these evolved systems are known, which represent only about 5 % of all known exoplanet host multiple stellar systems. HD 107148 B is the second confirmed white dwarf companion of an exoplanet host star with a projected separation to its primary star of more than 1000 AU. (© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Source

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