Krticka J.,Masaryk University |
Kubat J.,Astronomicky Ustav
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014
Hot star wind mass-loss rates depend on the abundance of individual elements. This dependence is usually accounted for assuming scaled solar chemical composition. However, this approach may not be justified in evolved rotating stars. The rotational mixing brings CNO-processed material to the stellar surface, increasing the abundance of nitrogen at the expense of carbon and oxygen, which potentially influences the mass-loss rates. We study the influence of the modified chemical composition resulting from the rotational mixing on the wind parameters, particularly the wind mass-loss rates. We use our non-local thermodynamic equilibrium wind code to predict the wind structure and compare the calculated wind mass-loss rate for the case of scaled solar chemical composition and the composition affected by the CNO cycle. We show that for a higher mass-fraction of heavier elements Z/Z⊙ 0.1 the change of chemical composition from the scaled solar to the CNO-processed scaled solar composition does not significantly affect the wind mass-loss rates. The missing line force caused by carbon and oxygen is compensated for by nitrogen line force. However, for a very low-mass fraction of heavier elements Z/Z ⊙ 0.1 the rotational mixing significantly affects the wind mass-loss rates. Moreover, the decrease of the mass-loss rate with metallicity is stronger at such low metallicities. We study the relevance of the wind momentum-luminosity relationship for different metallicities and show that for a metallicity Z/Z⊙ 0.1 the relationship displays a large scatter, which depreciates the use of this relationship at the lowest metallicities. © 2014 ESO.
Kubat J.,Astronomicky Ustav
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2012
We present results of our calculations of NLTE model stellar atmospheres for hot Population III stars composed of hydrogen and helium. We use our own computer code for the calculation of spherically symmetric NLTE model atmospheres in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium. The model atmospheres are then used for the calculation of emergent fluxes. These fluxes serve to evaluate the flow of high-energy photons for energies higher than ionization energies of hydrogen and helium, the so-called ionizing photon fluxes. We also present the time evolution of the ionizing photon fluxes. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..
Aret A.,Tartu Observatory |
Kraus M.,Tartu Observatory |
Slechta M.,Astronomicky Ustav
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2015
Emission-line stars are typically surrounded by dense circumstellar material, often in form of rings or disc-like structures. Line emission from forbidden transitions trace a diversity of density and temperature regimes. Of particular interest are the forbidden lines of [O I] λλ6300, 6364 and [Ca II] λλ7291, 7324. They arise in complementary, high-density environments, such as the inner-disc regions around B[e] supergiants. To study physical conditions traced by these lines and to investigate howcommon they are,we initiated a survey of emission-line stars. Here, we focus on a sample of nine B[e] stars in different evolutionary phases. Emission of the [OI] lines is one of the characteristics of B[e] stars. We find that four of the objects display [Ca II] line emission: for the B[e] supergiants V1478 Cyg and 3 Pup, the kinematics obtained from the [O I] and [Ca II] line profiles agrees with a Keplerian rotating disc scenario; the forbidden lines of the compact planetary nebula OY Gem display no kinematical broadening beyond spectral resolution; the luminous blue variable candidate V1429 Aql shows no [O I] lines, but the profile of its [Ca II] lines suggests that the emission originates in its hot, ionized circumbinary disc. As none of the B[e] stars of lower mass displays [Ca II] line emission, we conclude that these lines are more likely observable in massive stars with dense discs, supporting and strengthening the suggestion that their appearance requires high-density environments. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press.
Kraus M.,Astronomicky Ustav |
Borges Fernandes M.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis |
De Araujo F.X.,Observatorio Nacional
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010
Context. B[e] supergiants are surrounded by large amounts of hydrogen neutral material, traced by the emission in the optical [Oi] lines. This neutral material is most plausibly located within their dense, cool circumstellar disks, which are formed from the (probably non-spherically symmetric) wind material released by the star. Neither the formation mechanism nor the resulting structure and internal kinematics of these disks (or disk-like outflows) are well known. However, rapid rotation, lifting the material from the equatorial surface region, seems to play a fundamental role. Aims. The B[e] supergiant LHA 115-S 65 (in short: S 65) in the Small Magellanic Cloud is one of the two most rapidly rotating B[e] stars known. Its almost edge-on orientation allows a detailed kinematical study of its optically thin forbidden emission lines. With a focus on the rather strong [Oi] lines, we intend to test the two plausible disk scenarios: the outflowing and the Keplerian rotating disk. Methods. Based on high-and low-resolution optical spectra, we investigate the density and temperature structure in those disk regions that are traced by the [Oi] emission to constrain the disk sizes and mass fluxes needed to explain the observed [Oi] line luminosities. In addition, we compute the emerging line profiles expected for either an outflowing disk or a Keplerian rotating disk, which can directly be compared to the observed profiles. Results. Both disk scenarios deliver reasonably good fits to the line luminosities and profiles of the [Oi] lines. Nevertheless, the Keplerian disk model seems to be the more realistic one, because it also agrees with the kinematics derived from the large number of additional lines in the spectrum. As additional support for the presence of a high-density, gaseous disk, the spectrum shows two very intense and clearly double-peaked [Caii] lines. We discuss a possible disk-formation mechanism, and similarities between S65 and the group of Luminous Blue Variables. © 2010 ESO.
Kraus M.,Astronomicky Ustav |
Cidale L.S.,National University of La Plata |
Cidale L.S.,CONICET |
Arias M.L.,National University of La Plata |
And 3 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2014
B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs) are transitional objects in the post-main sequence evolution of massive stars. The small number of B[e]SGs known so far in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds indicates that this evolutionary phase is short. Nevertheless, the strong aspherical mass loss occurring during this phase, which leads to the formation of rings or disk-like structures, and the similarity to possible progenitors of SN1987 A emphasize the importance of B[e]SGs for the dynamics of the interstellar medium as well as stellar and galactic chemical evolution. The number of objects and their mass-loss behavior at different metallicities are essential ingredients for accurate predictions from stellar and galactic evolution calculations. However, B[e]SGs are not easily identified, as they share many characteristics with luminous blue variables (LBVs) in their quiescent (hot) phase. We present medium-resolution near-infrared K-band spectra for four stars in M 31, which have been assigned a hot LBV (candidate) status. Applying diagnostics that were recently developed to distinguish B[e]SGs from hot LBVs, we classify two of the objects as bonafide LBVs; one of them currently in outburst. In addition, we firmly classify the two stars 2MASS J00441709+4119273 and 2MASS J00452257+4150346 as the first B[e]SGs in M 31 based on strong CO band emission detected in their spectra, and infrared colors typical for this class of stars. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.