Astronomicky Ustav

Ondřejov, Czech Republic

Astronomicky Ustav

Ondřejov, Czech Republic
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Surlan B.,Astronomicky Ustav | Surlan B.,Matematicki Institute SANU | Hamann W.-R.,University of Potsdam | Kubat J.,Astronomicky Ustav | And 2 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Context. The true mass-loss rates from massive stars are important for many branches of astrophysics. For the correct modeling of the resonance lines, which are among the key diagnostics of stellar mass-loss, the stellar wind clumping has been found to be very important. To incorporate clumping into a radiative transfer calculation, three-dimensional (3D) models are required. Various properties of the clumps may have a strong impact on the resonance line formation and, therefore, on the determination of empirical mass-loss rates. Aims. We incorporate the 3D nature of the stellar wind clumping into radiative transfer calculations and investigate how different model parameters influence the resonance line formation. Methods. We develop a full 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code for inhomogeneous expanding stellar winds. The number density of clumps follows the mass conservation. For the first time, we use realistic 3D models that describe the dense as well as the tenuous wind components to model the formation of resonance lines in a clumped stellar wind. At the same time, we account for non-monotonic velocity fields. Results. The 3D density and velocity wind inhomogeneities show that there is a very strong impact on the resonance line formation. The different parameters describing the clumping and the velocity field results in different line strengths and profiles. We present a set of representative models for various sets of model parameters and investigate how the resonance lines are affected. Our 3D models show that the line opacity is lower for a larger clump separation and shallower velocity gradients within the clumps. Conclusions. Our model demonstrates that to obtain empirically correct mass-loss rates from the UV resonance lines, the wind clumping and its 3D nature must be taken into account. © 2012 ESO.

Krticka J.,Masaryk University | Kubat J.,Astronomicky Ustav
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

Hot star wind mass-loss rates depend on the abundance of individual elements. This dependence is usually accounted for assuming scaled solar chemical composition. However, this approach may not be justified in evolved rotating stars. The rotational mixing brings CNO-processed material to the stellar surface, increasing the abundance of nitrogen at the expense of carbon and oxygen, which potentially influences the mass-loss rates. We study the influence of the modified chemical composition resulting from the rotational mixing on the wind parameters, particularly the wind mass-loss rates. We use our non-local thermodynamic equilibrium wind code to predict the wind structure and compare the calculated wind mass-loss rate for the case of scaled solar chemical composition and the composition affected by the CNO cycle. We show that for a higher mass-fraction of heavier elements Z/Z⊙ 0.1 the change of chemical composition from the scaled solar to the CNO-processed scaled solar composition does not significantly affect the wind mass-loss rates. The missing line force caused by carbon and oxygen is compensated for by nitrogen line force. However, for a very low-mass fraction of heavier elements Z/Z ⊙ 0.1 the rotational mixing significantly affects the wind mass-loss rates. Moreover, the decrease of the mass-loss rate with metallicity is stronger at such low metallicities. We study the relevance of the wind momentum-luminosity relationship for different metallicities and show that for a metallicity Z/Z⊙ 0.1 the relationship displays a large scatter, which depreciates the use of this relationship at the lowest metallicities. © 2014 ESO.

Kraus M.,Astronomicky Ustav | Cidale L.S.,National University of La Plata | Cidale L.S.,CONICET | Arias M.L.,National University of La Plata | And 3 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2014

B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs) are transitional objects in the post-main sequence evolution of massive stars. The small number of B[e]SGs known so far in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds indicates that this evolutionary phase is short. Nevertheless, the strong aspherical mass loss occurring during this phase, which leads to the formation of rings or disk-like structures, and the similarity to possible progenitors of SN1987 A emphasize the importance of B[e]SGs for the dynamics of the interstellar medium as well as stellar and galactic chemical evolution. The number of objects and their mass-loss behavior at different metallicities are essential ingredients for accurate predictions from stellar and galactic evolution calculations. However, B[e]SGs are not easily identified, as they share many characteristics with luminous blue variables (LBVs) in their quiescent (hot) phase. We present medium-resolution near-infrared K-band spectra for four stars in M 31, which have been assigned a hot LBV (candidate) status. Applying diagnostics that were recently developed to distinguish B[e]SGs from hot LBVs, we classify two of the objects as bonafide LBVs; one of them currently in outburst. In addition, we firmly classify the two stars 2MASS J00441709+4119273 and 2MASS J00452257+4150346 as the first B[e]SGs in M 31 based on strong CO band emission detected in their spectra, and infrared colors typical for this class of stars. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Kraus M.,Astronomicky Ustav | Borges Fernandes M.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | De Araujo F.X.,Observatorio Nacional
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Context. B[e] supergiants are surrounded by large amounts of hydrogen neutral material, traced by the emission in the optical [Oi] lines. This neutral material is most plausibly located within their dense, cool circumstellar disks, which are formed from the (probably non-spherically symmetric) wind material released by the star. Neither the formation mechanism nor the resulting structure and internal kinematics of these disks (or disk-like outflows) are well known. However, rapid rotation, lifting the material from the equatorial surface region, seems to play a fundamental role. Aims. The B[e] supergiant LHA 115-S 65 (in short: S 65) in the Small Magellanic Cloud is one of the two most rapidly rotating B[e] stars known. Its almost edge-on orientation allows a detailed kinematical study of its optically thin forbidden emission lines. With a focus on the rather strong [Oi] lines, we intend to test the two plausible disk scenarios: the outflowing and the Keplerian rotating disk. Methods. Based on high-and low-resolution optical spectra, we investigate the density and temperature structure in those disk regions that are traced by the [Oi] emission to constrain the disk sizes and mass fluxes needed to explain the observed [Oi] line luminosities. In addition, we compute the emerging line profiles expected for either an outflowing disk or a Keplerian rotating disk, which can directly be compared to the observed profiles. Results. Both disk scenarios deliver reasonably good fits to the line luminosities and profiles of the [Oi] lines. Nevertheless, the Keplerian disk model seems to be the more realistic one, because it also agrees with the kinematics derived from the large number of additional lines in the spectrum. As additional support for the presence of a high-density, gaseous disk, the spectrum shows two very intense and clearly double-peaked [Caii] lines. We discuss a possible disk-formation mechanism, and similarities between S65 and the group of Luminous Blue Variables. © 2010 ESO.

Krticka J.,Ustav Teoreticke Fyziky A Astrofyziky PrF MU | Kubat J.,Astronomicky Ustav
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

We provide hot star wind models with radiative force calculated using the solution of comoving frame (CMF) radiative transfer equation. The wind models are calculated for the first stars, O stars, and the central stars of planetary nebulae. We show that without line overlaps and with solely thermal line broadening the pure Sobolev approximation provides a reliable estimate of the radiative force even close to the wind sonic point. Consequently, models with the Sobolev line force provide good approximations to solutions obtained with non-Sobolev transfer. Taking line overlaps into account, the radiative force becomes slightly lower, leading to a decrease in the wind mass-loss rate by roughly 40%. Below the sonic point, the CMF line force is significantly lower than the Sobolev one. In the case of pure thermal broadening, this does not influence the mass-loss rate, as the wind mass-loss rate is set in the supersonic part of the wind. However, when additional line broadening is present (e.g., the turbulent one) the region of low CMF line force may extend outwards to the regions where the mass-loss rate is set. This results in a decrease in the wind mass-loss rate. This effect can at least partly explain the low wind mass-loss rates derived from some observational analyses of luminous O stars. © 2010 ESO.

Kubat J.,Astronomicky Ustav
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2012

We present results of our calculations of NLTE model stellar atmospheres for hot Population III stars composed of hydrogen and helium. We use our own computer code for the calculation of spherically symmetric NLTE model atmospheres in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium. The model atmospheres are then used for the calculation of emergent fluxes. These fluxes serve to evaluate the flow of high-energy photons for energies higher than ionization energies of hydrogen and helium, the so-called ionizing photon fluxes. We also present the time evolution of the ionizing photon fluxes. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Kawka A.,Astronomicky Ustav | Vennes S.,Astronomicky Ustav
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

We present a model atmosphere analysis of cool hydrogen-rich white dwarfs observed at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) with the X-shooter spectrograph. The intermediate-dispersion and high signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra allowed us to conduct a detailed analysis of hydrogen and heavy element line profiles. In particular, we tested various prescriptions for hydrogen Balmer line broadening parameters and determined the effective temperature and surface gravity of each star. The spectra of three objects (NLTT 1675, 6390, and 11393) show heavy elements (Mg, Al, Ca, or Fe). Our abundance analysis revealed a relatively high iron-to-calcium ratio in NLTT 1675 and NLTT 6390. We also present an analysis of spectropolarimetric data obtained at the VLT using the focal reducer and low dispersion spectrograph (FORS). We establish strict upper limits to the magnetic field strengths in three of the DAZ white dwarfs and determine the longitudinal magnetic field strength in the DAZ NLTT 10480. The class of DAZ white dwarfs comprises objects that are possibly accreting material from their immediate circumstellar environment and the present study helps to establish the class properties. © 2012 ESO.

Vennes S.,Astronomicky Ustav | Kawka A.,Astronomicky Ustav
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We present an analysis of X-shooter spectra of the polluted, hydrogen-rich white dwarf NLTT 25792. The spectra show strong lines of calcium (Ca H&K, near-infrared calcium triplet, and Ca Iλ4226) and numerous lines of iron along with magnesium and aluminum lines from which we draw the abundance pattern. Moreover, the photospheric Ca H&K lines are possibly blended with a circumstellar component shifted by -20 km s-1 relative to the photosphere. A comparison with a sample of four white dwarfs with similar parameters show considerable variations in their abundance patterns, particularly in the calcium to magnesium abundance ratio that varies by a factor of five within this sample. The observed variations, even after accounting for diffusion effects, imply similar variations in the putative accretion source. Also, we find that silicon and sodium are significantly underabundant in the atmosphere of NLTT 25792, a fact that may offer some clues on the nature of the accretion source. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Aret A.,Tartu Observatory | Kraus M.,Tartu Observatory | Slechta M.,Astronomicky ustav
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2015

Emission-line stars are typically surrounded by dense circumstellar material, often in form of rings or disc-like structures. Line emission from forbidden transitions trace a diversity of density and temperature regimes. Of particular interest are the forbidden lines of [O I] λλ6300, 6364 and [Ca II] λλ7291, 7324. They arise in complementary, high-density environments, such as the inner-disc regions around B[e] supergiants. To study physical conditions traced by these lines and to investigate howcommon they are,we initiated a survey of emission-line stars. Here, we focus on a sample of nine B[e] stars in different evolutionary phases. Emission of the [OI] lines is one of the characteristics of B[e] stars. We find that four of the objects display [Ca II] line emission: for the B[e] supergiants V1478 Cyg and 3 Pup, the kinematics obtained from the [O I] and [Ca II] line profiles agrees with a Keplerian rotating disc scenario; the forbidden lines of the compact planetary nebula OY Gem display no kinematical broadening beyond spectral resolution; the luminous blue variable candidate V1429 Aql shows no [O I] lines, but the profile of its [Ca II] lines suggests that the emission originates in its hot, ionized circumbinary disc. As none of the B[e] stars of lower mass displays [Ca II] line emission, we conclude that these lines are more likely observable in massive stars with dense discs, supporting and strengthening the suggestion that their appearance requires high-density environments. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press.

Kawka A.,Astronomicky ustav | Vennes S.,Astronomicky ustav
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters | Year: 2014

We present an analysis of X-Shooter spectra of the polluted hydrogen-rich white dwarfs (DAZ) NLTT 888 and NLTT 53908. The spectra of NLTT 53908 show strong, Zeeman-split calcium lines (Ca II H&K and Ca Iλ4226) and the star appears to be a close relative of the polluted magnetic white dwarf (DAZH) NLTT 10480, while the spectra of NLTT 888 show narrow lines of calcium and iron. A comparison of the DAZ NLTT 888 and the DAZH NLTT 53908 with other class members illustrates the diversity of environment and formation circumstances surrounding these objects. In particular, we find that the incidence of magnetism in old, polluted white dwarfs significantly exceeds that found in the general white dwarf population which suggests a hypothetical link between a crowded planetary system and magnetic field generation. © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

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