Erb D.K.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee |
Bogosavljevic M.,Astronomical Observatory |
Steidel C.C.,California Institute of Technology
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2011
Extended nebulae of Lyα emission ("Lyα blobs") are known to be associated with overdense regions at high redshift. Here we present six large Lyα blobs in a previously known protocluster with galaxy overdensity δ 7 at z = 2.3; this is the richest field of giant Lyα blobs detected to date. The blobs have linear sizes of ≳ 100kpc and Lyα luminosities of 1043ergs-1. The positions of the blobs define two linear filaments with an extent of at least 12 comovingMpc; these filaments intersect at the center of one of the blobs. Measurement of the position angles of the blobs indicates that five of the six are aligned with these filaments to within 10°, suggesting a connection between the physical processes powering extended Lyα emission and those driving structure on larger scales. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Samurovic S.,Astronomical Observatory
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012
Context. The existence of dark matter in some early-type galaxies is well-established. We address one such case and study dynamical models of NGC 4472 by means of using both Newtonian and MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) approaches with particular emphasis on the latter. Aims. We use the measurements of the radial velocities of globular clusters in NGC 4472 to test the predictions of dynamical models to fit a high and approximately constant value the velocity dispersion with radius for this galaxy. Methods. The globular clusters of NGC 4472 are used as a tracer of the galaxy's gravitational potential. We calculate the Jeans equation for both the Newtonian (mass-follows-light and dark-matter models) and the MOND approaches assuming spherical symmetry and isotropic orbits. Results. We solve the isotropic Jeans equation for a spherical approximation and find, assuming a rotational velocity of 50 kms -1, that the isotropic Newtonian mass-follows-light models without dark matter cannot provide successful fits at radii larger than ~2 R e and that in the Newtonian approach dark matter is needed. Of the four different MOND models that we tested, two models can provide a successful fit to the velocity dispersion throughout the whole galaxy without assuming any anisotropy (again assuming a rotational velocity of 50 kms -1), thus showing that in the case of NGC 4472 MOND can describe the dynamics of a massive early-type galaxy with high values of velocity dispersion. © ESO, 2012.
Samurovic S.,Astronomical Observatory
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014
Context. The departures from Newtonian dynamics based on the mass-follows-light approach discovered in the outer parts of some early-type galaxies imply the existence of dark matter and/or necessary modifications to the Newtonian approach. We study dynamical models of a sample of ten early-type galaxies in both Newtonian and MOND approaches. Aims. The measurements of the radial velocities of the globular clusters in ten massive early-type galaxies are used to test the predictions of dynamical models with and without dark matter assuming Newtonian and MOND approaches out to several effective radii. Methods. The globular clusters taken from the SLUGGS database are used as tracers of the gravitational potential of the galaxies in a sample. We solve the Jeans equation for both the Newtonian (mass-follows-light and dark matter models) and the MOND approaches by assuming spherical symmetry and compare the resulting mass-to-light ratios with stellar population synthesis models. For both approaches, we apply various assumptions on velocity anisotropy. Results. We find that the Newtonian mass-follows-light models without a significant amount of dark matter can provide successful fits for only one galaxy (NGC 2768), and for the remaining nine early-type galaxies, various amounts of dark matter are required in the outer parts beyond 2-3Re. With MOND models, we find that four early-type galaxies could be fit without dark matter and that the remaining six galaxies require an additional dark component to successfully fit the line-of-sight observed velocity dispersions; the galaxy NGC 4486 (M 87) is the only galaxy for which dark matter is required in the inner regions, and MOND cannot fit the data without additional dark matter. In the inner region, the galaxy NGC 4365 requires higher mass-to-light ratios than the stellar values from population synthesis, but a reasonable mass-to-light ratio can be reached for MOND assuming slightly tangential orbits. The ten galaxies can be split into two classes: those with concentrations at (NGC 1407) or above the ΛCDM concentration-mass relation, given their measured virial masses, and those below this relation. The former generally require dark matter in both Newtonian and MOND approaches, while the latter do not require appreciable amounts of dark matter. © 2014 ESO .
Jovanovic P.,Astronomical Observatory
New Astronomy Reviews | Year: 2012
Here we present an overview of some of the most significant observational and theoretical studies of the broad Fe Kα spectral line, which is believed to originate from the innermost regions of relativistic accretion disks around central supermassive black holes of galaxies. The most important results of our investigations in this field are also listed. All these investigations indicate that the broad Fe Kα line is a powerful tool for studying the properties of the supermassive black holes (such as their masses and spins), space-time geometry (metric) in their vicinity, their accretion physics, probing the effects of their strong gravitational fields, and for testing the certain predictions of General Relativity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Popovic L.T.,Astronomical Observatory
New Astronomy Reviews | Year: 2012
It is now agreed that mergers play an essential role in the evolution of galaxies and therefore that mergers of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) must have been common. We see the consequences of past supermassive binary black holes (SMBs) in the light profiles of so-called 'core ellipticals' and a small number of SMBs have been detected. However, the evolution of SMBs is poorly understood. Theory predicts that SMBs should spend a substantial amount of time orbiting at velocities of a few thousand kilometers per second. If the SMBs are surrounded by gas observational effects might be expected from accretion onto one or both of the SMBHs. This could result in a binary Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) system. Like a single AGN, such a system would emit a broad band electromagnetic spectrum and broad and narrow emission lines. The broad emission spectral lines emitted from AGNs are our main probe of the geometry and physics of the broad line region (BLR) close to the SMBH. There is a group of AGNs that emit very broad and complex line profiles, showing two displaced peaks, one blueshifted and one redshifted from the systemic velocity defined by the narrow lines, or a single such peak. It has been proposed that such line shapes could indicate an SMB system. We discuss here how the presence of an SMB will affect the BLRs of AGNs and what the observational consequences might be. We review previous claims of SMBs based on broad line profiles and find that they may have non-SMB explanations as a consequence of a complex BLR structure. Because of these effects it is very hard to put limits on the number of SMBs from broad line profiles. It is still possible, however, that unusual broad line profiles in combination with other observational effects (line ratios, quasi-periodical oscillations, spectropolarimetry, etc.) could be used for SMBs detection. Some narrow lines (e.g., [O III]) in some AGNs show a double-peaked profile. Such profiles can be caused by streams in the Narrow Line Region (NLR), but may also indicate the presence of a kilo-parsec scale mergers. A few objects indicated as double-peaked narrow line emitters are confirmed as kpc-scale margers, but double-peaked narrow line profiles are mostly caused by the complex NLR geometry. We briefly discuss the expected line profile of broad Fe Kα that probably originated in the accretion disk(s) around SMBs. This line may also be very complex and indicate the complex disk geometry or/and an SMB presence. Finally we consider rare configurations where a SMB system might be gravitationally lensed by a foreground galaxy, and discuss the expected line profiles in these systems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.