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Sant'Ambrogio di Torino, Italy

Comino L.,University of Turin | Tabacco E.,University of Turin | Righi F.,University of Parma | Revello-Chion A.,Associazione Regionale Allevatori del Piemonte | And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The aim of this research was to study the effects of a commercial inoculant containing Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus buchneri that produces ferulate esterase enzymes on fermentation products, aerobic stability, microbial status, dry matter (DM) losses, and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (aNDF-D) of maize silages ensiled at four stages of maturity. The kernel milk line (ML) was used to time the forage harvest, and 1/6 ML, 2/5 ML, 3/4 ML and black layer (BL) were observed, for harvest stages I, II, III and IV, respectively. Chopped whole plant maize was untreated or treated with L. casei LC32909 and L. buchneri LN40177, which were applied to achieve a final application rate of 1×104cfu/g and 1.0×105cfu/g of fresh forage, respectively. The maize was ensiled in laboratory silos for 260 days before opening. The DM content, starch and ether extract concentrations and mould count increased, whereas water activity, nitrate, ash, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and crude protein (CP) contents progressively decreased with increasing maturity at harvest. The 24-h and 48-h aNDF-D were similar for harvest stages I, II and III, whereas they were the lowest in harvest stage IV. The effect of inoculation decreased with increasing DM content at ensiling, and the inoculum was ineffective at the last stage of maturity, probably due to the high epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, low water activity and low sugar content that could have negatively influenced the inoculation outcome. The inoculation lowered the lactic acid, yeast and mould counts and increased acetic acid, 1,2-propanediol, pH, DM losses and aerobic stability in the first three harvest stages, whereas no differences were observed between the treated and untreated silages harvested at the last stage of maturity. Regardless of the treatment, the yeast count fell under the detection limit and the aerobic stability of the silage increased to over 200h when the acetic acid content exceeded 25g/kg DM. Furthermore, the DM losses were closely correlated to the acetic acid production and increased to 80g/kg of DM in the treated silages harvested at the earliest stage of maturity. The potential milk production, estimated with MILK2006 model (Shaver et al., 2006, http://www.uwex.edu/ces/dairynutrition/spreadsheets.cfm), showed that the greater aNDF-D of the treated silage, which was observed in harvest stages I and III, did not counterbalance the higher DM losses attributable to the L. buchneri activity during ensiling, in terms of milk per Mg of original ensiled DM. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Coppa M.,University of Turin | Ferlay A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ferlay A.,VetAgro Sup | Borreani G.,University of Turin | And 7 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The aim of this work was to test the effect of herbage phenology on the fatty acid (FA) composition of milk and its interaction with fresh herbage proportion in cow diets in controlled conditions, as well as to validate the results in on-farm conditions. Three experiments were conducted in controlled conditions, and were designed to be representative of dairy systems with increasing fresh herbage proportions in cow diets: low (25% of diet dry matter (DM)); high (75% of diet DM), and full grazing (100% of diet DM). The fourth experiment was a survey conducted in commercial farms that adopt feeding systems similar to those of controlled conditions. An overall effect of herbage phenology on milk FA composition was observed. The number of FA that were affected by herbage phenology was higher as the proportion of fresh herbage in the cow diets increased. The C16:0, total even chain saturated FA, odd chain FA, branched-chain FA, C18:1c9, and monounsaturated FA concentrations in milk increased with increasing herbage phenology, whereas the de novo synthesized FA, C18:1t11, CLAc9t11, C18:3. n -3 and total polyunsaturated FA concentrations decreased. When low proportions of fresh mature herbage was fed to cows, the FA profile of the derived milk differed from the control diet (without fresh herbage) only for the higher concentrations of C18:1t11, CLAc9t11, and C18:3. n -3, whereas the differences were greater and significant for several FA for similar proportions of fresh herbage at an early phenological stage. The results obtained in controlled conditions were confirmed on-farm: the C18:1t11 and CLAc9t11 were the most sensitive FA to the effect of fresh herbage phenology. However, when low fresh herbage proportion were used in cow diets, the effect of herbage phenology on milk FA concentration was negligible. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Borreani G.,University of Turin | Coppa M.,University of Turin | Revello-Chion A.,Associazione Regionale Allevatori del Piemonte | Comino L.,University of Turin | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

The aim of this work was to characterize the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk from intensive dairy farming systems in the Po Plain (Italy) to estimate the costs of the adopted feeding strategies and to simulate the effect of supplementary premiums on the basis of milk FA composition on milk income. Twenty dairy farms with 5 different feeding strategies were studied: 3 corn silage-based systems in which cows were supplemented with a great proportion (CCH), a medium proportion (CCM), or without commercial concentrate mix (CC0), and 2 systems in which part of corn silage was replaced with grass or legume silage (HF) or with fresh herbage (G), cut and fed indoors. Bulk milk was sampled and lactating cow performance, feeding strategies and forage characteristics were recorded through a survey, 3 times during a year. The milk FA supplementary premium was calculated considering C18:3n. -3 and saturated FA (SFA) concentrations, and ratio of total cis C18:1 isomers to C16:0. The CCH, CCM, and CC0 systems bought most of their dairy cow feeds off farm, which allowed them to increase milk production to 35,000 L/yr per hectare. Their low dry matter and crude protein self-sufficiency led to higher feeding costs per liter of milk (from €0.158 to €0.184), and highest income over feed cost was achieved only for milk yield performance greater than 10,000. kg/cow per year. The use of homegrown forages in HF and G increased dry matter and crude protein self-sufficiency and reduced the feeding costs per liter of milk from 9 to 22%, compared with the other studied systems, making HF and G feeding economically competitive, even for a lower milk yield per cow. The studied systems highlighted a remarkable variation in FA profiles. The concentrations of C16:0 and SFA were the highest in CCH (31.53 and 67.84. g/100. g of FA) and G (31.23 and 68.45. g/100. g of FA), because of the larger proportion of commercial concentrate mix in the cow diet. The concentrations of C16:0 and SFA were the lowest in CCM (27.86 and 63.10. g/100. g of FA), because of low roughage-to-concentrate ratio in the cow diet, which is known to favor milk fat depression, affecting particularly these FA. The calculated supplementary premium was the highest in the CCM system, based on milk FA profiles from those herds. The HF diet was rich in forages and resulted in greater concentration of C18:3n. -3 in milk (0.57. g/100. g of FA) than the other systems and thus led to an increase in milk FA supplementary premium. Milk from G and HF milk had the lowest ratio of σn. -6:σn. -3 FA compared with milk from the systems based on higher corn silage proportion in the cow diet (3.71, and 3.25, respectively, vs. 4.58 to 4.78), with the lower ratios being closer to recommendation for human nutrition. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.

Coppa M.,University of Turin | Revello-Chion A.,Associazione Regionale Allevatori del Piemonte | Giaccone D.,Associazione Regionale Allevatori del Piemonte | Ferlay A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Near (NIR) and medium (MIR) infrared reflectance spectroscopy (IR) predictions of fatty acid (FA) composition, expressed as g/kg of milk or g/100 g of FA, on fresh and thawed milk were compared. Two-hundred-and-fifty bulk cow milks, collected from 70 farms in northwest Italy, were scanned by MIR in liquid form and by NIR in liquid and oven-dried forms. MIR and NIR FA (g/100 g FA) predictions on oven-dried milk were similar for the sum of even chain-saturated FA (ECSFA), odd chain-FA (OCFA), unsaturated FA (UFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 FA, and C18:1cis9 to C16 ratio. The monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-6 to n-3 ratio, polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and n-6 FA were predicted better by NIR on oven-dried milk. The NIR showed worse predictions than MIR for almost all FA, when expressed as g/kg of milk. The NIR predictions on fresh liquid and oven-dried milk were similar, but the reliability decreased for thawed liquid milk. The high performance shown by NIR and MIR allows their use for routine milk FA composition recording. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cavallarin L.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Antoniazzi S.,CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production | Giaccone D.,Associazione Regionale Allevatori del Piemonte | Tabacco E.,University of Turin | Borreani G.,University of Turin
Food Control | Year: 2014

Robiola and Primosale, two fresh cheeses, and Maccagno, an hard-type cheese, were produced using milk that was naturally and artificially contaminated with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at the levels of 10, 50 and 200ng/l. Concentrations of AFM1in milk and cheeses were determined by liquid chromatography and fluorimetric detection, coupled with immunoaffinity column extraction. In the Robiola production method, AFM1 levels in whey ranged between 30% and 65% of the total amount of the toxin present in the milk, while Primosale and Maccagno, that share the same rennet based cheesemaking procedure, showed an higher percentage of AFM1 partitioning to whey. For each cheese-making method, the concentration of AFM1 on fresh matter was higher in the cheese compared to the original milk. The fresh cheeses showed a concentration factors of 1.43 and 2.20 for Primosale and Robiola, respectively, whereas the Maccagno cheese showed a value of 6.71. For all the production methods considered, when using milk not exceeding the maximum acceptable level of 0.05μg AFM1/kg set by EU, the resulting cheese also complied with current Italian recommendations for AFM1 contamination (450ng AFM1/kg). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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